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The most commonly used yeast is Chromosomes Caregivers which has been utilized for the production of bread, wine and beer for thousands of years. Biologists in a Wide variety Of fields use S. Caregivers) as a model organism” (Simpson,201 OZ. Fermentation is the metabolic procedure in which an organism alters a carbohydrate, such as sugar or starch, into an acid or alcohol. For instance yeast performs fermentation to achieve energy by altering sugar into alcohol. Bacteria execute fermentation, altering carbohydrates into lactic acid (Helmsmen, 2013).

Fermentation can be used in the food and drink industry as well, examples of this is bread. In the process of fermentation with bread, yeast produces carbon dioxide, alcohol and other compounds which enable the dough to rise and modify its physical properties. Louis Pasteur stated that ” All yeast which ferment bread, beer, wine and cider corresponds to microscopic_ living cells to a microscopic tuning Chromosomes Caregivers . Many varieties of Chromosomes Caregivers exist in nature and they are more or less suitable for various types of fermentation” (Coffee, 2013).

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The carbon source Glucose is basically sugar that provides the human anatomy with energy, the chemical comes from carbohydrates and in which the body alters into source of energy _ Fructose sis macroeconomics which is mainly found in a lot of plants. Fructose is often bonded with glucose and together they form disaccharide sucrose. The organic compound Lactose is a disaccharide which comes from glucose and calaboose which is commonly found in milk. Taken from crystalline alcohol resulting from close Jollity can be used as an artificial sweetener in foods and can be found in some plant tissues.

The objective of the experiment was to compare results between the four carbohydrate sources and their rate of metabolism. My hypothesis for the experiment is that the simplest sugar (macroeconomics) will be the best source of carbon. Method: It is extremely crucial in the experiment to take health and safety precaution. These included, wearing gloves to not get any harmful substances onto the hands, wearing lab coats to prevent spillages if chemicals onto an individual and also the use of forceps and other scientific equipment to ensure safety is obtained.

To start off with, 0. 1 ml of the sample was taken using an automatic pipette trot the flask and straight into the covet. It was important to use a fresh pipette tip for every time a new sample is used and assures accuracy. Then distilled water was added with a 0. Ml measurement and mix the two sample soother, this was done by petting it up and down a couple of times, This process was repeated with all the sample with exactly 30 minutes intervals, this was measured by a stopwatch, Mil of water and yeast solution was placed into a covet.

This then needed to be placed into a spectrophotometer making sure the blank button is pressed, this was done to use a reference guide for the next set of findings. Lastly , the blank was removed and placed in the diluted sugar and yeast sample instead and the amount Of absorbency was noted down in a table. The independent variable Of this experiment was the carbon sources, whereas the dependent variable was the growth rate and the absorbency of each substance. Throughout the experiment, the volume Of solution, the temperature, the pH etc. Al stayed the same; the only thing that wasn’t controlled is the carbon sources. Results: Discussion: Chromosomes Caregivers metabolites better with Glucose and Fructose because they are both inconsideration which means that both carbohydrates cannot be reduced by hydrolysis into another simple sugar. (Helmsmen, 2013) They can easily be broken down in the normal respiration pathway to release energy. This is called Glycoside, Lactose is a disaccharide, If lactose is used for respiration, then it will have to be first hydrolysis to their macroeconomics components.

Lactose is milk sugar, and most Chromosomes Caregivers cannot break it down, they don’t have the necessary envy to hydrolysis lactose to its inconsideration 2013), However there is some respiration with lactose. With disaccharide they may have more enzymes to break which will take longer than inconsideration such as Glucose and Fructose. Chromosomes Caregivers does not naturally use close as a substrate, however, and must be engineered to both transport and ferment close (Jiffies, 2006).

Native strains Of Chromosomes Caregivers do not use close as a carbon source. However Wang et al. 1980, found out under intensive screening that some can convert close to ethanol directly under aerobic or oxygen limiting conditions, which is interesting to see (Jiffies and Jinn, 2004). The Jollity in the experiment did not react as well because there are 5 carbons so there is less substrate for the yeast to act upon and Jollity is an isomer whereas Glucose and Fructose are better as they have carbons and are monomers, which could be an evolutionary aspect.

Distilled water (the control) was the lowest of them all as water does not contain carbon. ‘t contains two hydrogen’s which are covalently bonded to an oxygen atom which is single. Figure 3: Structure of carbon sources. Top Left: Glucose (Parrot, 2003) Top Right: Fructose (Parrot, 2003) Bottom Left: Jollity (Helmsmen, 2013) Bottom Right: Lactose (Somoza, 2013). Conclusion: Looking back at the hypothesis and comparing them to the trends in the data, can see that it supports it as the simplest sugars, Glucose and Fructose reacted the highest. Therefore my hypothesis is accepted.

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