How did the world unleash such fury? The peoples of Europe felt safe; it had been almost half a century since the cast major European conflict. The upper class has been enjoying a very lavish lifestyle in the very prosperous times, but not for all. Workers put in twice the hours as they do today but earn half as much, and women earn half as much as the slave wage. In France, Ajars the leader of the working class is worried.He knows that that among Rupee’s elite captains of industry they speak openly of a war to end the movement of workers’ demands Ajars writes “Your violent and chaotic society, even when it pretends to seek peace, carries in it war just as the clouds carry the storm. ” The arms race is very good for equines; the great European powers prepare for war and their endless military service trains men for war, War and death hover over the planet. For centuries, the rivaling empires had been denying up the world.
Britain’s conquest reaches as far as Australia and Canada and Frances as far as Indo- China and Africa.Germany also has colonies but wants a larger slice of the pie. Prior to 1871 , Prussia was a divided state, but by defeating the French and annexing the French providence’s of Laces and Lorraine, it has become the German Empire. Germany’s leader, Wilhelm the second, orders a navy to e built that will rival England’s. He wants to give Germany its place in the history books. For Wilhelm the United Kingdom has been a threat ever since it formed the triple alliance with France and Russia, as a result of this Germany feels surrounded and vulnerable.Germany’s only true ally is the Status-Hungarian Empire, its leader, Franz Josef I, rules over subjects that demand independence.
He has been ruling over a tinderbox for decades and he and his officers and officials refuse any kind of reform. On June 28th 1914 the infernal war machine is set in motion as Prince Ferdinand and his wife are assassinated in Sarajevo. It is in Sarajevo that the world’s destiny will change forever and Bosnia that the Status- Hungary has annexed recently, but Serbia has opposed this move it wants to expand by uniting the Slavic people of the Balkans.So on June 18th 1914 Franz Ferdinand and his wife are assassinated leaving city hall by Gabriel Principia a 19 year old Bosnian nationalist, this assassination will have unimaginable consequences. The First World War changed the perception of war do to the sheer loss of life and brutality that the war introduced, people also no longer viewed war as an unpleasant stickiest in life, and people no longer viewed war as romantic and glorious.
“There were many words tattoo could not stand to hear and finally only the names of places had dignity.Abstract words such as glory, honor, courage, or hallow were obscene. ” [American novelist and WWW veteran Ernest Hemingway, in A Farewell to Arms’, 1 929] The First World War changed the outlook on war by destroying the glorious and the romantic notions of war. The way the war was fought was the biggest contributor to this change in heart on how people see war today compared to before the Great War; because the generals of the time still believed in Napoleonic style battle tactics which meant the casualty rates would be monumental every time they would order their men to go over the top.
Soldiers would be cut down by the hundred in a matter of seconds once they stepped foot into no man’s land. Both sides were also equipped with rifles that were accurate up to 500 meters even though distance between trenches in the Western Front could be as close as 40 yards, which Only contributed to the endless onslaught of the war (BBC History). Weapons like the machine gun and rifles undistributed to the brutality of the war but the weapon that contributed to the most damage physically and also mentally was artillery.Artillery pieces were essentially huge cannons that fired explosive rounds against enemy positions, causing enormous damage to men, equipment and the landscape. During World War I they become larger, easier to handle and more accurate in their fire; they were also mobile, though moving large artillery guns became difficult if not impossible in ragged or muddy areas.
There was no denying the deadly impact of artillery: more soldiers were killed by exploding shells and hearken than any other weapon of the Great War(BBC HIStory). At the Battle Of the Some in 1916, almost 1. Million shells were fired on German lines in the space of a week. The largest single artillery piece was the German-built ‘Paris gun’, used to shell the French capital from 120 kilometers away.
The nonstop shelling could lead men to go insane or what it was called at the time “Shell Shock. ” The endless shelling would mess with a man’s mental state so much that he would not be able to function, most of the time these men would be affected for life and would have to spend many years in mental institutes because of what they had to go through.Even with all of this devastating weaponry like the machine gun, artillery, rifles and poison gas, Generals refused to change battle tactics and would continue to send their men to their deaths, time after time, for months at a time they would order frontal assaults on the same enemy line to only win sometimes mere miles or even yards of enemy territory’ at a time. In the novel All Quit on the Western Front the theme of the book is the overwhelming brutality of the war and the senseless slaughter of millions.
The book sets out to portray war as it was actually experienced, replacing the romantic picture of glory’ and heroism with an unromantic vision of fear, meaninglessness, and butchery. In many ways, World War I demanded this depiction more than any war before it, because it completely altered mankind’s conception of war with its catastrophic levels of carnage and violence, its battles that lasted for months, and its gruesome new technological advancements that made killing easier and more numerous than ever before.Armature’s novel dramatists these aspects of World War I and portrays the mind-numbing terror and savagery of AR with a relentless focus on the physical and psychological damage that it caused. At the end of the novel, almost every major character is dead, epitomizing the wars devastating effect on the generation of young men who were forced to fight it.
“While they (the teachers and politicians) continued to write and talk, we saw the wounded and dying. While they taught that duty to one’s country is the greatest thing, we already knew that death-throes are stronger. (All Quiet on the Western Front) In the 18th century and earlier European conflicts were viewed as unpleasant necessity’s in life, people thought Wars Were the only way to settle spites between countries or rivaling royal family’s, and these conflicts were almost never questioned on if they were justified or not. Kings, emperors, and mighty generals would line their men up and send them off into battle to face almost certain death, and the armies would never hesitate or think weather or not what they were fighting for was justified.The Great War was the first war were soldiers and civilians began to question what they were fighting for was just or not. At the beginning of the war nationalism was extremely high and millions of young men rushed to enlist to defend their entry, but as the war progressed and began to turn into a bloody and brutal stalemate both sides began to question what they were fighting for. Many men on both sides enlisted the day that their countries declared war all of them believed they were waging war for peace, and freedom but as the war progressed it became clear that the elite classes on both sides had entirely different motives.
The industrialists on both sides were in it for money, the makers of all the arms of ever design wanted to war to keep going not because of honorable reasons like defending their country but because hey were making 3 times the amount of money that they were making before the war had started. Many men on both sides had very cynical views on the war as it carried on and for many of them they no longer had a reason for why they were fighting, the only reason that many of them could come up with was because it was simply there duty.For many citizens the war also became too much to bear as in both countries had many civilian revolts. In England there were Irish revolts that burned down government buildings, and in cities of Italy, Germany, and Austria women would revolt to get food for heir families because of the food shortages due to the war. (The Making of the West pig. 846) In France soldiered had begun to mutiny and 3500 mutineers were caught and put on trial, while 600 were set to face firing lines.
In Russia revolt against the war had taken a turn for the worse as revolt and protest had turned into a full out revolution. The Great War is arguably the deadliest and most brutal conflict in human history, out of the 65 million men that were embroiled for the war around 8 million men were killed as a direct result of the war, also 21 million other men were wounded. The war also killed its fair share of civilians, 950,000 civilians were killed directly due to military actions while another 6 million were killed by disease and famine that the war had caused in Europe.The overall estimate of the loss of life that the Great War caused is around 35 million men, women, and children, this is one of the reasons why this is the deadliest of all European and war conflicts. Another factor that contributed to the slaughter and brutality of the war was the usage of out dated battle tactics and modern weaponry. At the time the Generals still believed in the traditional Napoleonic tactics to fight a war.
The problem with this is that with modern rifles and machine guns the mortality rate was tremendously high. So the tactics were modified to a much slower pace war.The men dug deep trench works that ran from Belgium down to southern France into the Mediterranean, these trenches were around Ft tall and Ft wide and would gig gag throughout the front. There were also usually three lines of trench works before you would reach “no man’s land” which was the area between the two armies. As a result of the trench warfare armies had to come up with a more effective way to kill each other. So when the soldiers were hunkered own in their trenches they would be bombarded by artillery for hours or even days at a time with no end.These artillery shells would explode over the lines, and even in the trenches, the explosions would send shrapnel everywhere that would maim and kill men any.
Inhere near the explosion. The most demoralizing and malicious weapons used in the war was gas. Gas was used to kill entrenched defenders and was used very widespread throughout the war. As the war progressed so did the types of gases, both armies went from using tear gas to much more effective gases like chlorine and phosgene gases.Even though gas casualties became limited because of better gas masks, the horror of being a casualty of gas was still burned into soldiers minds on both sides of the war, the horror of these casualties is best depicted by Wilfred Own in his poem Dulcet et Decorum Est,” Gas! Gas! Quick, boys! -? An ecstasy of fumbling Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time; But someone still was yelling out and stumbling, And floundering like a man in fire or lime . Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning.In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, He plunges at e, guttering, choking, drowning.
If in some smothering dreams you too could pace Behind the wagon that we flung him in, And watch the white eyes writhing in his face, His hanging face, like a devil’s sick of sin; If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs, Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues, My friend, you would not tell with such high zest To children ardent for some desperate glory, The old Lie; Dulcet et Decorum est. Pro patria moor. The casualties of gas was minor compared to the loss of fife that would occur every time an army would go over the top, with the invention off the maxim machine gun men could be cut down at and UN heard of rate at the time, soldiers would be able to cut down 500 men in a matter of 1 0 seconds and yet military strategist refused to change tactics. This refusal to change tactics angered the soldiers on both sides because they believed they were being viewed as expendable resources. The War was decided in the first twenty days of fighting, and all that happened afterwards consisted in battles which, however formidable and devastating, were but desperate and vain appeals against the decision of Fate.
“-Winston Churchill, The First World War was filled with senseless killing and brutality that scarred Europe and the world forever, It took millions of lives and caused millions in damage and the outcome of the war only led up to an evenly brutal world war.