Regarding women’s political ambition Encouraging women’s political ambition may not conflict with personal choice, if we approach in terms of equal access not just equal opportunities. Rather, women could enjoy much more choices through the encouragement against suppressing environments. Why women’s political ambition is less developed? It seems to be natural that women are less ambitious than men.
Women are inherently less ambitious? According to Richard L. Fox, it is educated or given from unfavorable environments for women.He explains gender differences n ambition for office seeking these four factors: 1) gender differences in external support to run for office, 2) family arrangements and interests in office holding, 3) self-perceptions Of electoral viability. For example, gatekeepers, such as party officials or elected officials, significantly affect the candidate pool during the process of recruitment, and they tend to prefer male candidates. Women have no choice but to work hard than men, or they may give up their desire.Also, family arrangements and personal interests are critical in establishing political ambition. Even though, there have been such improvement in women’s social status, women still confront “double bind”: work inside and outside the house at the same time.
Third, self- perceptions for elected officials are different for men than women. Women are likely to be more modest about their achievements and underestimate themselves. These characteristics make it difficult for women to self-promote and campaign. Reflecting my experience, it is more obvious.There have been a few male colleagues who have political ambitions in the Korean government and their ambitions were recognized from people around them. They have darted to build their careers and established political networks, and some of them have succeeded as a mayor or other electing positions. However, Eve never seen female colleagues who have political aspirations or interests, even though they have similar profiles and achievements as male civil servants.
Political ambition may be a very basic and important skill or talent to run office.The cases of successful women Politician Margaret Thatcher, Nancy Polloi, Kristin Gaillardia. They are all notable and powerful women politicians. It is noteworthy that they have one common ground: grown up in the political family. This is not a mere coincidence. Their fathers and family members inspired them to be a politician and grow a political ambition. With family’s supporting, they learned how to enhance her political capacity and career. Their cases verify that how environments and education are influential to formulate political ambition and establish and overcome an unfavorable political environment.
Unlike other normal girls family background and education environment has made them encourage run the office, and challenge for the higher positions and goals. How can we encourage women candidates? Sylvia Helmet’s Off-Ramps and On-Ramps models: pull factors and push factors also have some implications in women’s political participation not only economic activities. These two powers enforce women not to represent their voices. Women’s low political ambition, like their low interests in seeking male oriented offices, family arrangements and self-conceptions can be a pull factor to stay in their current positions.First, Education and training in family and schools could be a one of the solutions to support women to challenge to run office. Social systems that make women have work and life balance are another important solutions such as public child-care facilities. Unfavorable political systems like the male-oriented culture can be a push factor to push them out of the ring.
Institutional reforms such as quotas or electoral system reform for women’s participation could double the effect. Conclusion To improve the in-equality and lessen the gap between genders, we need various efforts.Leading the change in gender role will be easier said than done, because it is deeply rooted in social structure and also has been deeply related to social culture, history and social structures such as family and employment types.
However, it is absolutely worth it. How to find way through the labyrinth To be successful political leaders, women confront many obstacles and should overcome the barriers. What’s the efficient way to navigate the labyrinth? It may depend on the situations and personalities. Eagle and Carry proposed some principles of leadership behaviors to be applied commonly: 1 .Blend Agency with communion: you need to be a friendly female leader and decisive female leader. 2. Build Social Capital: joining and participating in networks with colleagues and related persons.
3. Balancing employment and Emily responsibility: a big portion of the obstacles derived from their family responsibility such as child care, house hold 4. Challenges and benefits of having it all: try to achieve a successful career and family life 5. Moving forward equality: successful women leaders often are supported by husband.Overall, those are very useful skills for women to promote and to increase their leaderships. Examine contents item by item: blend agency with communion. That sounds like an irony.
How can we introduce it in the real world? To confront both demands efficiently from my experience, you need o separate the fields in your organization, you need to be kind and soft about personal things such as one-on-one meeting or private meeting but you should be decisive and sustain authority regarding official tasks and formal sites.Building social capital is also crucial factor to achieve goals. Women have much more constraints than men, because they tend to be not welcomed in social meeting which is male dominated networks and time is limited to spend socializing due to housework and child-care.
However, social capital is very important to decide women’s career path, as reputation likely o favorable to people who know each other and have some relationships. Nancy Polloi is one of the most suitable women politicians qualified these factors. She can control both sides, masculine and feminine leadership.Also, she knows how to build political networks and resources, and leverage it. The capacity has been her most valuable talents to develop her career. Even though just simply mentioned in a document (Nancy Polloi puts her stamp on the House), how could she balance employment and house responsibility is one issue we need to focus on. Paradigm shift in the study of women As the environments are changing and the number of women politician in increased, the paradigm of the study of women has brought changes.
The first generation is the discrimination- fairness paradigm.The priority of the paradigm is equal opportunities, fair treatment etc under the assumption that “we are all the same”. Disadvantage of this paradigm is that it subverts differences to encourage harmony and miss out the new idea or chance to fulfill dynamics from diversities. However, the access-and-legitimacy paradigm is focused on the acceptance under the assumption of “we celebrate differences”.
In the politics, women’s participating has contributed to the improvement and the enhancement of women’s status? In terms of leadership styles, they brought some positive changes.According to Judy B. Rosen, traditionally the command-and-control leadership style (transactional leadership) with men has been dominated in politics. They regard job performance as a series of transactions with subordinates. However, women’s leadership is characterized as “transformation”, more interactive: 1) encourage participation, 2) share power and information, 3) enhance the self-worth of others, 4) energize others. Interactive leadership has turn out to be effective and advantageous to adapt rapidly changing environment.In politics, it can play out positive roles to improve politics. Women could well seer.
‘e the needs of the electorate and be good at communicating opposites and interest groups. I has experienced at workplace more than 10 years, the attitudes and awareness of people for women leaders have been changes dramatically. Became the natural trend of society. From the start, spokesperson of parties is the role of male politician in Korea, in 1990 the first spokeswomen was appointed and she successfully completed her jobs with women’s typical affinity and Emotional intelligence.Now the role of spokesperson is regarded as representative women’s position in politics. Challenge and get performance would change the history of women’s politics.
There are some researches that sex ratio on group affect performance and behavior of group or person. The pressure of conform to male norm are great, when women constitute are small. However, as the number is increase, the power of resistant are great and the pressure can be easily overcome. The critical mass is commonly regarded as 20-?30 percent. In many countries, the numbers of women politician’s presence is close to the critical mass.We could wish women’s interactive political leadership contribute more equal and better society.
Evaluation through Kirkpatrick’constraints Kirkpatrick suggested 4 factors to explain constraints that inhibit women’s political participations and leaderships as below. 1. Physiological Constraints Physiological aspect is related a few beliefs: 1) there are psychological differences between men and women, 2) politic are certain ubiquitous types of activities associated power processes, 3) politics are universal relations tit power, politics and maleness. . Cultural Constraints Cultural constraints propose some assumptions: 1) culture formulate norms defining the sexes and identifies behavior appropriate for each, 2) those norms decide the identity, and demands of each gender, 3) Sex stereotypes are not necessarily derived from the physiological sex characteristics, 4) Norms are internalized regardless of sex, 5) In modern societies, there are cultural norms that limit women’s personal development and social choice. Politics is a representative field as recognized as “masculine”, “man’s world”.
From long history, culture affects women’s lattice awareness and behavior by limiting self-esteem necessary for political leadership. 3. Role Constraints Role means a position in the social structure, and is closed related to the social culture. Traditionally, women’s primary role is defined as wife and mother. So, it’s very hard to be compatibility with profession roles such political decision makers.
4. Male conspiracy this explanation is that women’s political participation has been barred from ruling class bent on maintaining its hegemony.Evaluating Nancy Polloi Overcoming social barriers Nancy is the most powerful speaker and one of the most influential women Laotians. In the unfavorable political environment against women, how could she achieve her political goals and grow political ambition? Observing her history so far is helpful understanding and evaluating her unique case. She is a person before feminist era. It is obvious she frequently confront many constraints to limit women’s political participation.
Physiological, cultural, role constraints are associated with each other and reinforce to be consistent.Luckily, she was bone in political family and learned the fine art of sustaining political support from her earliest years. According to Gail Chadwick, her childhood experience has strongly influenced her political career and built in her bone. Polloi and her older brothers took turns to welcome constituents who came for help. Naturally, she learned politics in the field and grew her political ambition. Also, it became valuable resources to establish her political career path. As a results, her childhood experience in the political family was strong enough to escape from other physiological, cultural, role constraints.
Finding ways through the labyrinth Regarding the skills to find way to build her political career path, she has been excellent. She was completely equipped with leadership behavior. Eagle and Carry suggested a few ways: blend agency with communion, build social capital, balancing employment and family, challenges and benefits Of having at all. Polloi is a friendly (stylish), but a decisive female leader. Sometimes, she is relentless and highly pragmatic to achieve goals, and knows how to use the power and get things done.Also, she has wide political networks and takes advantages of the sources. For example, she maintained nationwide networks and used her networks to begin to conquer the House Democratic caucus. One of the surprising things about Polloi is that she is a mother of five children.
It is not hard to imagine how she struggle and effort to maintain work and life balance. Evaluating Margaret Thatcher Margaret Thatcher is the most well known female politician in 20th century and influential politicians, even though there are controversies about her political achievements.Comparing Nancy Polloi, Thatcher had a more masculine leadership style. Influence of father and education Political energy and ambition of Alfred Robert was turned over to her daughter, Theater. She grew up in the family circumstance which is serious ND dedicated to duty and responded his father’s wish as companion and substitute for homebound wife. During teenage, her father put into much energy and time to educate. She transferred the grammar school that is competitive, took university extension lectures and spent much time to discuss political issues.
It became a forte for her later.Like mentioned previously at the case of Nancy Polloi, psychological, cultural and role constraint were not impossible barriers for her to achieve political leadership through the condense education and consistent inspiration from her father. Thatcher was ambitious to apply Oxford in 14 and finally got admission. Thatcher’s leadership style Regarding leadership style, it can be divided two categories: transactional (masculine) vs.. Transformational (feminine).
Her leadership style can be regarded as more transactional one as like her nick name, Iron woman.So called, Milk Snatcher is an example of her style: ending $1 g million free milk program for primary schoolchildren from seven to eleven. From the decision including other unpopular decisions, she suffered a heavy blow on her reputation recognized as a just budget cutter. Even though, there are opposite, if she determine one thing, she push it to the end. Comparing the leadership of Polloi, they are some contrary each other: Polloi is a mater tactician to make things go smooth, meanwhile Thatcher tend to stay firm.Evaluation through F-SET F-SET model suggests 4 dimensions for women to achieve her successful leadership: femininity, self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, and teamwork. First, maintaining their femininity, when lead organization or subordinate. Self-efficacy refers to on?s belief in his or her capability to proceed.
Emotional intelligence is the ability to monitor and control in positive ways in immunization. Nancy Polloi From a few anecdotes, we can view Polloi perform an efficient leadership, which is unique and distinctive.As mentioned before, her leadership is well mixed with two aspects. Sometimes she was warm and interactive. Sometimes she is decisive and relentless to push for the goals. In the sense Of femininity, she maintained some balance between two sides.
Polloi looks be full of self-efficacy. As Chadwick said, the key of her success is from her drive and mastery of detail. She built her own political career to support others and learned political street sense and ability. This career path would e impossible, unless she has self-efficacy. She is also well qualified with emotional intelligence.As she has been trained to see people’s needs and interest from young-age in political family, it is linked her exceptional political main and became a valuable reset for her political career.
Margaret Thatcher Thatcher’s leadership is closer to traditional than transformational style. Confronting opposite and pushing the goals may certified her image as iron lady and more masculine leadership style. If it is necessary, she fight to get what she wanted. However, we can view some other aspect of her from the anecdotes that hosting a ministry meeting on $50 million, she delayed the meeting to buy her son, Denim’s breakfast.This story makes Thatcher as very being human as a mother. Also wonder, if other normal woman do like Thatcher did, whether they got praised or criticized for ignoring work for housework. Self-efficacy of Thatcher has been trained and internalized from education and her father’s aspiration. After starting career as politician, her tremendous work supported her belief.
Quick and thorough briefing was her trademark during her in Parliament. She studies harder and prepared well than anyone else.