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Wireless ad hoc Network Architecture & Routing

Abstract

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The Share of mobile device users and their implementations are increasing at a very high rate. ad-hoc networks were defined in 1990’s yet still, we rely on conventional centralized routing methods instead of utilizing the mobile devices as default data forwarding nodes. In order to understand the implementation of ad-hoc networks and their scope of improvement, the study decides to focus on wireless ad-hoc network architecture and the routing protocols which makes it functional. we start by examining ad-hoc networks with respect to a predefined architectural implementation. Also, it emphasizes the possible implementation of appropriate protocol to replace the existing protocol adopted by the system. Hence discussing scope of improvement.

Literature Review:

A wireless Ad-Hoc network is a network which is independent of pre-existing infrastructure. It does not follow the convention of centralized networks. A node in ad-hoc network is not fixed-positioned and can be mobile with respect to position.

It may function as a router or simply as medium for forwarding data traffic to another node in possible network. The determination of the node forwarding the data depends solely upon the type of algorithm utilized. Standardized routing protocols can be bifurcated under as:

Protocols:

Reactive Routing: They find the route by flooding the network with packets onSource Sans Pro;Helvetica;Arial;sans-serif demand . There are alogrithms developed under this classification.

Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)

Ad-hoc On Demand distance vector(AODV)

Associativity Based Routing(ABR)

Proactive Routing: Maintains an updated list of routes by distributing routing tables periodically. Following are the algorithm or protocols developed under this classiication.

Optimized Link State Routing Protocol(OLSR)

The Babel Routing Protocol

Our Study will mainly focus on DSR and OLSR routing protocols belonging to Reactive & Proactive classifications respectively. Hence an overview of both the protocols is as below:

DSR:

The essential adaptation of DSR utilizes express “source directing”, in which every datum bundle sent conveys in its header the total, requested rundown of hubs through which the bundle will pass. This utilization of express source directing enables the sender to choose and control the courses utilized for its own particular bundles, bolsters the utilization of different courses to any goal (for instance, for stack adjusting), and permits a straightforward certification that the courses utilized are without circle. By counting source course in the header of every datum parcel, other hubs sending or catching any of these bundles can likewise effectively store this directing data for sometime later.

OLSR:

Optimized Link State Routing Protocol is a table driven pro-active protocol. It actively exchanges information in topolgy with nodes. A node selects neighbouring nodes which is referenced as Mutli-point relays. Only these selected nodes are held responsible for forwarding data or traffic . They construct an effecient method for flooding control traffic by reducing number of transmission required.

Architecture:

Conventionaly, Ad-hoc networks had a limited to militry use or had limited corporate utilization. We take a step forward and study an ad-hoc network engineered for a Metropolitan city. We realize the architecture through:

“Design and Evaluation of a Metropolitan Area Multitier Wireless Ad Hoc Network Architecture”

The backbone network in this architecture is multihop.

Here the nodes are visualized as the bus(used for public transportation) and stations acting as base access points. Apart form that the stations or terminal connection has access to internet. After settting it up the whole network is studied with repect to the movement public transport in transit. The network here utilizes C-DSR protocol. It finds the route by flooding entire network with control information packets. Although this method is fair, it may fail to scale if one of the node fails to communicate or the number of nodes substantially increase.For every node connected the overhead of links generated would be n(n-1)/2. Thus as the transportaion grows, the management of entire network by flooding it becomes impractical.

For this, proactive algorithm like OLSR should be used which would maintain routing table by periodically distributing them. Not only it would provide a better synchronization between nodes but also would lead towards effeceint communication even when the network scales in size.

The only drawback is that it may become difficult to maintain routing tables.

References:

Wireless ad hoc Networks

Haas, Z. J., Deng, J., Liang, B., Papadimitratos, P. and Sajama, S. 2003. Wireless ad hoc Networks. Encyclopedia of Telecommunications.

Adaptive Probabilistic Proactive Routing for Dense MANETs

Abdelfettah Belghith, Mohamed Amine Abid, and Adel Ben Mnaouer, “Adaptive Probabilistic Proactive Routing for Dense MANETs,” Journal of Computer Networks and Communications, vol. 2012, Article ID 234824, 10 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/234824

ABR

Toh, CK. Wireless Personal Communications (1997) 4: 103. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008812928561

DSR

Johnson, D., Hu, Y., and D. Maltz, “The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for IPv4”, RFC 4728, DOI 10.17487/RFC4728, February 2007,

RFC 4728

AODV

Perkins, C., Belding-Royer, E., and S. Das, “Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”, RFC 3561, DOI 10.17487/RFC3561, July 2003, .

OLSR

Clausen, T., Ed., and P. Jacquet, Ed., “Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR)”, RFC 3626, DOI 10.17487/RFC3626, October 2003, .

Babel

Chroboczek, J., “The Babel Routing Protocol”, RFC 6126, DOI 10.17487/RFC6126, April 2011, .

Design and Evaluation of a Metropolitan Area Multitier Wireless Ad Hoc Network Architecture

Yujin Li, Ming Zhao, Wenye Wang, “Internode Mobility Correlation for Group Detection and Analysis in VANETs”, Vehicular Technology IEEE Transactions on, vol. 62, pp. 4590-4601, 2013, ISSN 0018-9545.

A Solution for Mobile DTN in a Real Urban Scenario

A. Bujari, C. E. Palazzi, D. Maggiorini, C. Quadri, G. P. Rossi, “A solution for mobile DTN in a real urban scenario”, Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW) 2012 IEEE, pp. 344-349, 2012.

Electric Power Allocation in a Network of Fast

Charging Stations

I. S. Bayram, G. Michailidis, M. Devetsikiotis, F. Granelli, “Electric Power Allocation in a Network of Fast Charging Stations”, Selected Areas in Communications IEEE Journal on, vol. 31, pp. 1235-1246, 2013, ISSN 0733-8716.

Why did you do this study or project?
The Share of mobile device users and their implementations are increasing at a very high rate. Ad-hoc networks were defined in 1990’s yet still we rely on conventional centralized routing methods instead of utilizing the mobile devices as default data forwarding nodes. In order to understand the implementation of ad-hoc networks and their scope of improvement, the study decides to focus on wireless adhoc network architecture and the routing protocols which makes it functional.

What did you do, and how?
Utilized resource material and gathered preexisting information provided on legitimate internet sites like:
Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.ca/
IEEE:https://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/authors/paper.html
Also, in order to understand the routing protocols I made a study of protocols by:
Chai-Keong Toh – Associativity-Based Routing for Ad-Hoc Mobile Networks

Wireless Adhoc network = Mobile adhoc network.
Decentralized, does not rely on pre-existing infrastructure.
Each node works as a router.
Data Forwardinfg depends on network connectivity and routing algorithm.

The study begins b examining ad hoc networks with respect to a predefined architectural implementation. Also, it emphasizes on the possible implementation of appropriate Algorithm to replace the existing algorithm adopted by the system.
Hence, discussing the scope of improvement.

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