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Window size (2 bytes) – regulation
of the amount of data senders transmit to the receivers before requiring an
acknowledgement number.

Checksum (2 bytes) – is a
value that helps the receiver detect corrupted messages.

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Urgent pointer (2 bytes) –
“in conjunction with one of the control flags, it can be used as a data offset
to mark a subset of a message as requiring priority processing”.

Options (0-40 bytes) – includes
support for special acknowledgment and window scaling algorithms.

Padding – fills emptiness
with zeros to ensure that data begins on a 32-bit boundary.


FTP – File Transfer
Protocol (Application layer) is an Internet protocol for sending files between
computers over TCP/IP connections.

HTTPS – Hyper Text
Transport Protocol Secure (Application layer) is used by websites to encrypt
the data being sent back and forth with SSL encryption.

SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol (Application layer) is an Internet protocol for electronic mail transmission.

MIDI – The Musical
Instrument Digital Interface (Presentation layer) is used for digitized music.

TCP – Transmission
Control Protocol (Transport layer) guarantees delivery of data packets. This
protocol checks acknowledgement of data.

UDP – User Datagram
Protocol (Transport layer) has only the basic error checking mechanism using

ICMP – Internet Control
Message Protocol (Network layer) is an error-reporting protocol which network
devices like routers use to generate error messages to the source IP address
when network problems prevent delivery of IP packets.

Token ring – a local area
network in which all computers are connected in a ring or star topology and
pass one or more logical tokens from host to host. It is the Data Link Layer

Ethernet – is a network
communication standard capable of handling large amounts of data at high speeds.
It is the Physical layer protocol.

802.11 Wi-Fi – Physical
layer specifications for implementing wireless local area network computer

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