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Window size (2 bytes) – regulationof the amount of data senders transmit to the receivers before requiring anacknowledgement number.Checksum (2 bytes) – is avalue that helps the receiver detect corrupted messages.Urgent pointer (2 bytes) –”in conjunction with one of the control flags, it can be used as a data offsetto mark a subset of a message as requiring priority processing”.Options (0-40 bytes) – includessupport for special acknowledgment and window scaling algorithms.Padding – fills emptinesswith zeros to ensure that data begins on a 32-bit boundary. FTP – File TransferProtocol (Application layer) is an Internet protocol for sending files betweencomputers over TCP/IP connections.

HTTPS – Hyper TextTransport Protocol Secure (Application layer) is used by websites to encryptthe data being sent back and forth with SSL encryption.SMTP – Simple Mail TransferProtocol (Application layer) is an Internet protocol for electronic mail transmission.MIDI – The MusicalInstrument Digital Interface (Presentation layer) is used for digitized music.TCP – TransmissionControl Protocol (Transport layer) guarantees delivery of data packets. Thisprotocol checks acknowledgement of data.UDP – User DatagramProtocol (Transport layer) has only the basic error checking mechanism usingchecksums.

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ICMP – Internet ControlMessage Protocol (Network layer) is an error-reporting protocol which networkdevices like routers use to generate error messages to the source IP addresswhen network problems prevent delivery of IP packets.Token ring – a local areanetwork in which all computers are connected in a ring or star topology andpass one or more logical tokens from host to host. It is the Data Link Layerprotocol.Ethernet – is a networkcommunication standard capable of handling large amounts of data at high speeds.It is the Physical layer protocol.802.11 Wi-Fi – Physicallayer specifications for implementing wireless local area network computercommunication.

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