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They actively transmit the pathogen from an infected reservoir host animal to another individual. 3. How did the student come in contact with this organism? Mans: The student came in contact with this organism during her deer population study and walking miles through the Pineapple; which is a forested habitat and the home to Deere. Ticks from these deer usually attaches to the clothes and later travel onto the skin. 4. What is the blood test that would confirm the presence of this pathogen in the student’s blood?

Mans: The blood test that would confirm he presence of this pathogen in the student’s blood stream would be an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or Inflorescence’s assay (IF) . Specimens yielding positive or equivocal results should be tested further by using a standardized western blot assay. Specimens that are negative by a sensitive EIA or IF do not need further testing. 5: What are the characteristics of this pathogen. Pathogenic). How do the possible pathogens in the case study differ? Mans: Boreal buffering is a spirochete.

Spirochetes are a group of apologetically-distinct bacteria that have a unique mode of motility y means of axial filaments. (endoplasmic). Spirochetes are widespread in viscous environment, they also have a unique cell surface which accompanies their unique type of mortality. The endothelial are contained within the periphrasis space between a semi rigid pedagogical helix and a multi layer, flexible outer membrane sheath. Boreal bacteria has a fewer coils then other bacteria and average 0. 2-0. Um by 4 to 8 um. When the filaments rotate within this space, the spirochetes move in clock-screw fashion. This type of movement is thought to e an adaptation to viscous environments, such as aquatic sediments, foolish, mucosa, tissues and the intestinal tracts of animals For pathogens, this allows the spirochetes to hide their flagella, which are normally antigenic, from the host immune defenses. Spirochetes are much longer than they are wide, and often their width is below the resolving power of the light.

Hence,most spirochetes cannot be viewed using conventional light microscope . Dark field microscope must be used to view spirochetes. Boreal buffering also has a three layer cell all, helping to determine the spiral shape of the spirochete. This distinctive cell wall resembles those of Gram- negative bacteria. B is one of the most immune-suppressive infectious agents, affecting cellular immunity, humeral immunity, and natural killer (INK) cell population.

A person infected by B can remained asymptomatic for a long period of time and then suddenly, without warning, begin to experience symptoms once again. One of these mechanisms involves the invasion of tissues by the spirochete. The tip of the organism has the ability to bind to cells, spin and twirl until it stimulates the cells own enzymes to digest a part of the membrane, finally allowing entry. Once inside, the spirochetes results in either the death of the cell or takes up residency within.

It may lie dormant for years, protected from both the immune system and the actions of antibiotics. Boreal buffering invades the blood and tissues of various infected mammals and birds. The natural reservoir for B is thought to be the footed mouse. Ticks transfer the spirochetes to the white tailed deer, humans, and other warm-blooded animals after a blood meal on an infected animal. In humans, dogs, and many other animals, infection tit Boreal buffering results in the pathology of Lame disease.

There’s not much of a difference in the possible pathogens of the case study in that the student presented her symptoms a week after her trip to the Pineapple and definition of the Lame disease shows proves that a person can remained asymptomatic for a period of time before becoming symptomatic. 6: The patient’s constellation of symptoms suggests what course of antibiotic therapy? Mans: Early symptoms will be treated with oral agents such as disincline, monoclinic, or chiffonier which are usually prescribed for 2-3 weeks.

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