University of Science & Technology of Southern Philippines
(Department of Food Science and Technology
Lapasan, Cagayan de oro City
VARIOUS UTILIZATION AND PREPARATION OF RICE BRAN
MARK PHILIP D. DAQUIPA
Rice bran is a by-product collects during rice milling process. Bran is just a waste during rice milling process, but it contains high amount of nutrients and needs to be utilize. Rice is a plant. The outer layer of the grain (bran) and the oil made from the bran are used for medicine. Rice bran oil is popular as “healthy oil” in Japan, Asia, and particularly India. Be careful not to confuse rice bran with other forms of bran such as oat and wheat bran. Rice bran is used for treating diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, alcoholism, obesity, and AIDS; for preventing stomach and colon cancer; for preventing heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease; for strengthening the immune system; for increasing energy and improving athletic performance for improving liver function; and as an antioxidant. Also edible coatings using rice bran can improve the quality of frozen, fresh, poultry, seafood products, and processed meat by retarding moisture loss, reducing lipid oxidation and discoloration, enhancing product appearance in retail packages by eliminating dripping, sealing in volatile flavours, functioning as carriers of food additives such as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, and reducing oil uptake by battered and breaded products during frying
Rice bran is a byproduct collects during rice milling process. Bran is just a waste during rice milling process, but it contains high amount of nutrients and needs to be utilize. In a study of “processing of rice bran and its utilization in food products” by Shweta Bhosale, it stated there that the rice bran was safe from microbes, pesticide residue, heavy metals, and was stabilized by microwave heating (Bhosale, 2014). The rice bran is a good source of protein and fat. Rice bran also contains health benefits such as its antioxidant property, lowering cholesterol, anti – ageing/cosmetics and personal care, and many other health benefits that is part of this review paper (Prasadan, 2011). It is also one of the most important by products which produced by rice milling, it contains 14-18% of oil that can be use as rice bran wax (Göhl, 1982). When rice bran is stabilized, it is converted into a high-quality ingredient for feed, food and edible oil. It is important to stabilize rice bran because the higher the FFAs in the oil, the higher the refining loss for edible oil. For human consumption, rice bran has been used by the American Heart Association to lower cholesterol. The USDA also states that rice bran is a good source of vitamins, minerals and omega 3, 6, and 9. In animal feed, stabilized rice bran can be used as an ingredient for equine, swine, poultry, aquatics, and deer (Cisneros, 2017). Many products can be made or produced by rice bran such as edible grade oil, industrial grade crude oil, free fatty acid manufacture, plasticizers, rice bran wax and others mention throughout this review paper.
RICE BRAN AS EDIBLE GRADE OIL
Rice bran oil has very low content of linolenic acid and high content of tocopherol. Therefore, bran oil has distinct advantages over other vegetable oils. Traditionally, in many of the Asian countries, including Indonesia and India, rice bran has largely been fed to cattle. However, Japan has considered rice bran to be a valuable resource since ages and extracted oil out of it. Besides, rice bran oil is more popularly known as ‘Heart Oil’ in Japan. Now, it is emerging as popular cooking oil in several Asian countries, especially for deep and shallow frying applications (Rifinery, nd). Chemical characteristic of rice bran oil was shown below.
Trans Fats Nil
?-Oryzanol 10,000 – 14,000 ppm
Free Fatty Acid (% as oleic) 0.1% max
Color (1? cell, Lovibond 5R+Y) 12.0 max
Iodine Value (Wijs method, g/100 g sample) 91–98
Peroxide Value (meq/kg) 1.0 max
Saponification Value 180–185
Unsaponifiable Matter 3.5 max
Refractive Index 1.464–1.465
Specific Gravity 0.917
Para Anisidine Value 55 max
Smoke Point 255 Deg. Cel.
Moisture (%) 0.05% max
RICE BRAN AS PROTECTIVE COATING
Rice bran oil can be used to manufacture surface coatings like alkyd and resin based paints, enamels, varnishes and lacquers (a clear or coloured varnish). Edible coatings using rice bran can improve the quality of frozen, fresh, poultry, seafood products, and processed meat by retarding moisture loss, reducing lipid oxidation and discoloration, enhancing product appearance in retail packages by eliminating dripping, sealing in volatile flavours, functioning as carriers of food additives such as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, and reducing oil uptake by battered and breaded products during frying (Gennadioa, 1996).
RICE BRAN AS PLASTICIZERS
Bran oil can also be used to manufacture plasticisers for use in plastic and rubber industries. With environmental and toxicity concerns becoming more critical, there are increasing efforts to remove phthalates from polymer compounds around the globe more rapidly. Phthalates can be replaced by natural products; in particular, those obtained from vegetable oils and fats. In the present study, a natural-based plasticizer, synthesized by oxidation of non-toxic rice bran oil (RBO) with proxy acid generated in situ has been added to poly (vinyl chloride). The influence of various reaction parameters on oxidation was studied by investigating the reaction ratio, temperature, reaction time and stirring speed. Oxidized rice bran oil obtained from an optimized reaction condition was analyzed by iodine number and oxidant content. FTIR was used to analyze epoxy group formation. Product ERBO was obtained with 82 % oxidant conversion within 3 h of reaction period. PVC sheets were formulated using a conventional plasticizer di-octal phthalate and was partially replaced by synthesized ERBO. The effect of ERBO addition was tested by mechanical properties (tensile strength, modulus, elongation-at-break, shore D hardness) and compared with commercially available ESBO (oxidized soybean oil). ERBO presented fairly good incorporation and plasticizing performance, as demonstrated by the results of mechanical properties, exudation, migration tests, thermal stability by thermo gravimetric analysis, T g values as shown by differential scanning calorimetric, replacing about 60 % of the total plasticizer (Nihul, et al., 2014).
RICE BRAN AS TOCOPHEROL
Crude bran oil contains 2-4% tocoferol which has nutritional and antacid effects. The antioxidant activities of vitamin E (?-tocopherol, ?-tocotrienol, ?-tocopherol, and ?-tocotrienol) and ?-oryzanol components (cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, and campesteryl ferulate) purified from rice bran were investigated in a cholesterol oxidation system accelerated by 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride. All components exhibited significant antioxidant activity in the inhibition of cholesterol oxidation. The highest antioxidant activity was found for 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, and all three ?-oryzanol components had activities higher than that of any of the four vitamin E components. Because the quantity of ?-oryzanol is up to 10 times higher than that of vitamin E in rice bran, ?-oryzanol may be a more important antioxidant of rice bran in the reduction of cholesterol oxidation than vitamin E, which has been considered to be the major antioxidant in rice bran. The antioxidant function of these components against cholesterol oxidation may contribute to the potential hypocholesterolemic property of rice bran (Xu, et al., 2001).
RICE BRAN AS RICE BRAN WAX
Rice Bran Wax is a by product of Rice Bran Oil production. It is a natural hard, crystalline vegetable wax obtained from rice husks with a high melting point of 77-86°C. It consists of very long chain saturated C46-C62 esters, also known as Policosanols, from C20-C36 fatty alcohols and C20-C26 fatty acids. Rice Bran Wax naturally contains Phospholipids which act as binding agents, Phytosterols (healthy plant sterols) and Squalane which is moisturising and has antioxidant properties. It can also be used as component in formulations like carbon paper base, stencils, candles etc. Rice bran wax is used in a wide-range of cosmetic, food and industrial applications. Cosmetic products that may use rice bran wax include body butters, lip balms, lipsticks, lotions, face creams and mascara. Rice bran wax can be used on grown fruits and vegetables to prevent the loss of moisture and protect the product’s shelf life. Industrial and consumer products that may use vegetable waxes such as rice bran are crayons, polishes, coatings for wood or paper and lubricants. In other hand Rice Bran Wax is obtained through the cold press de-waxing of rice oil and which yields a yellow, hard natural wax with a high melt point, which is often compared to Carnauba Wax. However, there are functional differences between the two of note. Rice Bran Wax is a superior binder of oils and has been useful in combining with and stabilizing oils in both anhydrous and emulsion systems. It is seen as particularly effective in reducing syneresis in lipstick and other oil-based systems. It is finished in beads and packaged in 25 kg cartons (Strahl, 2013).
RICE BRAN AS BEAUTY AND SPA PRODUCT
A pinay citizen created a beauty and spa product from rice bran. In Laguna native has found a way to infuse rice bran oil’s vitamins, nutrients and antioxidants into soaps, lotions, shampoos, body scrubs and pain relief products under the spa brand. “Rice bran, which is the flagship of Oryspa, is rich in Vitamin E and A. Vitamin A is for skin renewal… Rice bran also has oryzanol, a nutrient that is an anti-oxidant, its anti-aging,” Oryspa founder Sherill Quintana told ABS-CBNnews.com in an interview. Quintana never thought she would become an entrepreneur. A sociology graduate from UP, she worked in community development and projects with US Agency for International Development (USAID) and World Wide Fund for Nature (Garcia, 2014).
RICE BRAN COULD BE THE NEXT BIG SUPERFOOD
The bran is the outer coating of your everyday grain of rice, and is often removed during processing and used as animal feed – but a new study says it’s actually really nutritious. In fact, according to a US study it could be the next big super food. Researchers at Colorado State University have found that rice bran is particularly high in B vitamins like thiamine, niacin and B6, which play a vital role in energy production, cardiovascular health and warding off depression, the Mail reports. “A single serving of rice bran – 28 grams – delivers more than half of a person’s daily requirements of important vitamins such as thiamine, niacin and vitamin B6,” said study author Professor Elizabeth Ryan. “Traditionally, rice bran is thought to be a cheap fibre source and only considered useful as a source of lipids, for example as cooking oil (Young, 2017).
HEALTH BENEFITS OF RICE BRAN AS OIL
Has a Neutral Taste
The outer layer of the rice grain is called bran and the oil is extracted from this brown husk. It has a mild flavour and is neutral in taste. The taste does not clash with Indian food and you can even use it in cookies and cakes. It may lend a mild nutty flavour. It can be used for sautéing, grilling, marinades and is great in salad dressings. It’s light and quite versatile.
Contains Good Fats
The National Institute of Nutrition and The Indian Council of Medical Research recommend oils that have an equal proportion of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats. Rice bran oil has an almost balanced fatty acid composition that is close to this ratio. Rice bran oil is rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and free of trans-fats.
It is known as the heart-friendly oil. “Rice bran might help lower cholesterol because it contains the right amount of oryzanol which is an antioxidant. It helps decrease cholesterol absorption and increase cholesterol elimination,” says Gargi Sharma, Nutritionist & Weight-Management Expert. Indians are genetically prone to heart disease and therefore one should to take precautions to have a healthy heart.
The American Heart Association and The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend rice bran oil as the best choice for improving serum cholesterol levels.
Has a High Smoke Point
Rice bran oil has a high smoke-point, which is pitched at 254C or 490F, which makes it perfect for stir frying or deep frying. It can maintain its nutritive quality even at high temperatures. Also, it has been seen that food cooked at high temperatures absorbs less oil.
Rice bran oil is less viscous which means that it does not stick to food. It absorbs less oil which is why you also need to be careful of the quantity you use. In fact, it tends to feel less oily on the tongue.
Rich in Vitamin E
“It is rich in Vitamin E which is powerful antioxidant and has anti-mutagenic properties which prevent from cancer. Vitamin E also helps in boosting your immunity,” says Gargi.
Aids Weight Loss
“It contains high levels of natural antioxidants which boost your metabolic rate and may help with weight loss,” adds Gargi. The high level of antioxidants not only makes this oil healthy but also makes it resist rancidity and spoilage. It has a long shelf life.
Good for the Skin
Squalene is a compound present in Rice Bran Oil which is easily absorbed by the skin and keeps it soft, supple and smooth.
Has Anti-Inflammatory Properties
It is an anti-inflammatory and some studies have shown that its consumption can reduce the effects of menopause like hot flashes
A good cooking oil doesn’t just add life to the most common foods, but also plays a pivotal role in your health. It could affect your cholesterol levels, alter your metabolic syndrome and if you’re using the right kind of oil, it could also reduce inflammation. That’s what makes it all the more important to pick the right one. In the last few years, ghee (clarified butter) and refined oil have earned a bad reputation due to the cholesterol and heart disease scare. For such health reasons, people have become more open to experiment with new types of oil. On such variety that has slowly been creeping up on health charts is Rice Bran Oil. According to Dr. Ritika Samaddar, Chief Dietician at Max Healthcare, “Rice bran oil is a relatively new entrant in the category of cooking oils and perhaps the healthiest. This is for a number of reasons: for one, it’s got an ideal balance of polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) and monounsaturated fats (MUFA). To be precise, rice bran oil has 37 percent polyunsaturated fats and 45 percent monounsaturated fats, almost a 1:1 ratio” (Samaddar, 2017).
COMPOSITION OF RICE BRAN
The composition of stabilized and parboiled rice bran is given in Table 14.1, and of rice bran oil in Table 14.2. Nutritional studies have identified dietary fibre, bran oil, sterols, and protein as rice bran’s healthful components. The total dietary fibre (TDF) content of rice bran ranges from 21% to 270%, with less than 2% as soluble dietary fibre. The protein content of stabilized rice bran ranges from 12% to 16%, and in parboiled rice bran from 14% to 20%. Rice bran protein is efficiently digested and has high nutritional value; it has a protein efficiency ratio of 1.6. Concentrates from rice bran protein have an efficiency ratio of 2.0 to 2.2, comparable to casein (2.5), a milk protein. Rice bran contains 22% to 30% crude fat including 1.8% gum and 0.4% wax. The crude fat content of commercial stabilized rice bran is 18% to 22%. The fatty acid composition of rice bran oil consists of 41% monounsaturated, 36% polyunsatu rates, and 19% saturates. The composition of unsaponifiable matter (UM) in rice bran oil is listed in Table 14.3. Rice bran oil (RBO) contains over 4% of UM, but peanut oil contains only 0.3% to 1% UM. UM are a mixture of 430% plant sterols (camp sterol, stigma sterol, 13-sitosterol, and others), 28% tri-terpene alcohols (24-methylene cycloartanol, and cycloartenol), 19% less polar compounds such as aliphatic alcohols and other hydrocarbons, and 10% 4-methyl sterols. Oryzanol, a mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpenoid alcohols, composes 20% to 30% of UM and 1.1% to 2.60% of bran oil (Kahlon, 1990).
SAFETY OF RICE BRAN
Stabilized rice bran has shown no negative influence on shelf life or organoleptic properties of the various foods when used as an ingredient. Stabili7ii rice bran has been shown to have no adverse effects on animal health or fecd nutritional quality when fed at 60% of the diet in chicks or up to 40” (Kahlon, 1990).
RICE BRAN IN HAMSTER STUDIES
The hamster has become the preferred rodent model for cholesterol studies, since it has a gall bladder, which is absent in the rat, and the lipoprotein profile of hamster plasma by density gradient ultracentrifugation contains distinct very low-density (20%), low-density (25%), and high-density (55%) lipoprotein fractions. Furthermore, hamsters and humans are reported to be similar in having significant levels of circulating plasma cholesterol and an intrinsically low rate of hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and a similarit y in their response to diet modification and drugs (Kahlon, 1990).
RICE BRAN IN RAT STUDIES
The current preference among researchers is to use the hamster model for the evaluation of diet ingredient effects on cholesterol metabolism, earlier work was conducted primarily with the laboratory rat. In cholesterol fed rats (Ayano et al., nd). Reported that the neutral detergent fibre fraction (high in hemicelluloses) of rice bran had serum cholesterol-lowering effects, while the acid detergent fibre fraction was ineffective (Kahlon, 1990).
RICE BRAN IN OTHER SPECIES
Rabbits fed 20% rice protein diet had significantly lower PC, VLDL-C, and LDL-C compared to those fed casein. In addition to the higher arginine/lysine ratio of rice protein compared to that of casein, the authors also suggested that the lower percentage of acetate-generating amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine tryptophan, and lysine) in rice protein versus casein (33.49% vs. 38.17%, respectively) may have been partly responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effects. In male cynomolgus monkeys, rice bran oil significantly lowered PC and LDL-C without affecting high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with a diet containing a mixture of butter oil, corn oil, and olive oil in an eight-week feeding study. In contrast, feeding a 50% rice bran diet to female cynomolgus monkeys fed increasing amounts of cholesterol for 9 months resulted in no PC reductions 37 A stabilized rice bran diet with 7% TDF significantly lowered PC but not liver cholesterol in C5713L/6 mice compared to a fibre-free control diet when diets contained 0.06% cholesterol from ground beef (Kahlon, 1990).
RICE BRAN IN HUMAN STUDIES
The unpolished rice showed a repressive effect on serum cholesterol and triglyceride elevations in adult males compared with those fed polished rice; the beneficial effect was attributed to the dietary fibre of the unpolished rice. Five healthy young men consumed brown rice with 279 g of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) per day for 14 days, resulting in significant increases in focal wet weight, dry weight, water, and fat excretion compared with those fed white rice with 13.7 g of NDF per day. PC and HDL-C levels were not significantly different from those with a polished rice diet, possibly due to the fact that total cholesterol concentrations in the subjects were in the lower part of the normal range. In a four-week study, 24 mildly hypercholesterolemia men consuming 60 g/d of rice bran diet containing 11.8 g dietary fibre, had 49/o (no significant) reductions in LDL-C and Apo-B, significant increases in their HDL-C/PC ratio, and no change in PC compared to those consuming wheat bran. It was concluded that a consumption of realistic amounts of a single food source of dietary fibre could provide a modest benefit to the anti-atherogenic profile of plasma lipoproteins. In a three-week crossover design study, significant reductions in PC and LDL-C were observed in 11 subjects with moderately elevated blood cholesterol after consuming 100 g/d of rice bran or oat bran. Reductions were 10% (significant) during the first three weeks and 5% (no significant) during the second three-week period, with an overall reduction of 7%. Cholesterol reductions with rice bran and oat bran were similar. In a six-week non-crossover design study, moderately hyper cholesterol adults achieved significant reductions in serum total and LDL cholesterol by consuming 84 g/d of heat-stabilized, full-fat medium grain rice bran product or oat bran. The bran supplements were added to the subjects’ usual daily intake of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet and did not replace any dietary components. There were no significant differences between the serum cholesterol reductions with the rice bran product (8.3%) versus those with the oat bran (13.0%) (Kahlon, 1990).
Bile Acid Binding by Rice Bran
Binding bile acids and increasing their focal excretion has been linked with cholesterol lowering in plasma and liver. in vitro bile acid binding by stabilized rice bran on dry matter basis has been observed to be 12% to 25% of that by cholestyramine (a bile acid binding drug) (Kahlon, 1990).
Market Potential of Rice bran
Only a small fraction of the rice bran produced worldwide is stabilized and sold as health food. Rice bran and its fractions are sold at different price levels depending upon the final use or application. The wholesale price for stabilized rice bran ranges from $2.92 to $4.25 per Kg. Retail prices vary from $6.14 to $58.64 per Kg. If all the rice bran and rice oil produced were sold as health food, the price would lower to encourage consumer preference. The stabilized rice bran at $1 per Kg would have a potential market value of $63 to $76 billion per year (world production = 63 to 76 million tons). It would be utilized as a food ingredient and its full healthful potential could be realized (Kahlon, 1990).
Bran is just a waste during rice milling process, but it contains high amount of nutrients and needs to be utilize. In a study of processing of rice bran and its utilization in food products by Shweta Bhosale, it stated there that the rice bran was safe from microbes, pesticide residue, heavy metals, and was stabilized by microwave heating (Bhosale, 2014). The rice bran is a good source of protein and fat. Rice bran also contains health benefits such as its antioxidant property, lowering cholesterol, anti – ageing/cosmetics and personal care, and many other health benefits that is part of this review paper (Prasadan, 2011). It is also one of the most important by products which produced by rice milling, it contains 14-18% of oil that can be use as rice bran wax (Ghl, 1982). When rice bran is stabilized, it is converted into a high-quality ingredient for feed, food and edible oil. Also Many products can be made or produced by rice bran such as edible grade oil, industrial grade crude oil, free fatty acid manufacture, plasticizers, rice bran wax and others mention throughout this review paper. Because the quantity of -oryzanol is up to 10 times higher than that of vitamin E in rice bran, -oryzanol may be a more important antioxidant of rice bran in the reduction of cholesterol oxidation than vitamin E, which has been considered to be the major antioxidant in rice bran. In contrast, feeding a 50% rice bran diet to female cynomolgus monkeys fed increasing amounts of cholesterol for 9 months resulted in no PC reductions 37 A stabilized rice bran diet with 7% TDF significantly lowered PC but not liver cholesterol in C5713L/6 mice compared to a fibre-free control diet when diets contained 0.06% cholesterol from ground beef (Kahlon, 1990).Lastly,the wholesale price for stabilized rice bran ranges from $2.92 to $4.25 per Kg.
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