TS1Whatis meant by respective parties? Do you mean stakeholders, and why are they”respective”? TS2Ifound the same quote in this article https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3d30/1fcfd3e9818f2423c40938cb2143eebbd2b5.
pdfbut then it says 1994. This quote from Wang (2004) we have mentioned is not inthe references – can you help me find it TS3Copiedword for word from http://chss.uonbi.ac.ke/sites/default/files/chss/RUTH%20A.%20ELWAK%20Final%20Project.pdfis that ok? TS4Ithink we need now to consider rewiriting this to focus on government – to thegovernment or more to the beneficiaries and and the politics of the area – whenthose elected do not deliver? TS5Thisgroup publishes every year and much of the content has not changed much.
I wonderif we are able to quote more recent data? TS6Thisseems lifted off a web site without attribution, if there are others like this,I could put my paper in jeopardy. Can you recheck please TS7Arewe able to quantify these with data so that every assertion we make is evidencebased? TS8Canwe quantify how many of these are known TS9Dowe know how many of each and how many people they serve and what is the waterdeficit in the county? Besides, there would be difficulty in gauging theobjectivity of the respondents in responding to the research instrumentsespecially owing to the information sought by the study. This limitation wouldbe overcome by obtaining official consent to carry out this study among the projectsand assuring the respondents that confidentiality would be maintained and theinformation used for academic purposes only.A number of limitations will be faced during the study.There might be difficulty in gaining access to the sampled respondents who arethe project managers. To reach the prospective respondents the researcher willask for permission from the county government of Kitui so as to get introductionletter and requisite permission for collecting data. The conservative nature ofthe counties and oaths of secrecy administered on their employees regardinginformation disclosure might render data collection difficult.
1.7 Limitation of the StudyThis study will focus on the influence of critical successfactors on the implementation of water projects in Kitui County. The study willfocus on all the water projects in Kitui County projects that are implementedbetween 2015 and 2017.
The specific respondents will be the project managers. Thisstudy will be conducted in 2018.1.6 Scope of the StudyLastly, given the limited knowledge in the same field, thefindings of this study may also be used as a source of reference for otherresearchers. Similarly, this study will be of great significance to theacademician as they seek to increase their knowledge on the influence ofcritical success factors on the implementation of water projects in Kitui CountyThe study sort to identify gaps and opportunities all gearedtowards implementation of successful water supply projects that address theneeds of the slum dwellers in all aspects and that ensure funds received areutilized in the best ways to promote welfare in informal settlements.
The information obtained in this study will be significantto the policy makers/ministry of water and local authorities as it would give arational evaluation of implementation of water supply projects and bridge thegaps that are there during the implementation of water projects in the County.The study will assist policy and decision makers to adopt sustainablestrategies towards during project implementation. 1.5 Justification of the StudyH5: Regulatoryframework does not have an effect on the relationship between critical successfactors and implementation of water projects in Kitui CountyH4: Topmanagement and support does not have an effect implementation of water projectsin Kitui CountyH3: Projectmonitoring and evaluation does not have an effect implementation of water projectsin Kitui CountyH1: Existenceof project management skills does not have an effect implementation of waterprojects in Kitui CountyH0: Budgetallocation and management does not have a significant effect implementation ofwater projects in Kitui County1.4 Hypothesis v. To establish the moderating effect of regulatoryframework on the relationship between critical success factors and implementationof water projects in Kitui County iv. To establish the influence of top management andsupport on implementation of water projects in Kitui County iii.
To establish the effect of project monitoringand evaluation on implementation of water projects in Kitui County ii. To investigate the effect of projectmanagement skills on implementation of water projects in Kitui County i. To determine the effect of budgetallocation and management on implementation of water projects in Kitui County1.3.
2Specific ObjectiveThe general objective of the study will be to determine the influenceof critical success factors on the implementation of water projects in Kitui County.1.3.1 General Research Objectives1.
3 Research ObjectivesPast studies have been conducted on implementation ofprojects but few studies have focused on influence of critical success factorson the implementation of water projects in Kitui County. Liu,Zang, Tian, Liu, Yang, Jia and Zhang (2013) conducted a study on waterconservancy projects in China: achievements, challenges and way forward. Thestudy was conducted in China thus presenting a geographical gap. Kikuvi(2016) conducted a study on the implementation of successful waterand sanitation projects in informal settlements in Kenya.
The study focused onthe effect of monitoring and evaluation, financial resources, politics and rateof returns on implementation of water projects in Kitui County. Konde (2016) conducteda study on factors influencing the sustainability of rural water projects: acase of Kalongoni water project in Kilifi County, Kenya. The study foundthat economic factors such as presence of income generating activities and over-relianceon donor funding have major effect on sustainability of community projects. Thecurrent study will seek to determine the influence of critical success factors on theimplementation of water projects in Kitui County.
However, water projects are usually expensive in terms ofexpertise, labor and financial resource. By not meeting the expectedperformance, water projects that are not functioning can result in a hugeresource loss. Inmany parts of Kenya there are many cases of dry boreholesTS7 ,washed away water pans and unfinished water projectsTS8 .The mainwater sources in Kitui County are rivers, dams and boreholesTS9 .The average distance to the nearest water source in the county is 5 Kilometres andonly 1514(1%) of the households in the county access potable water (MCG,2015).
Kitui county is therefore characterized by inadequate accessto water. However there are both successful and unsuccessful water projects andchallenges of water scarcity still persist. (MSC Records, 2016).Success in water project is indicated by its performance inthe achievement of project time, cost, quality, safety and environmentalsustainability objectives (Zhou, Zhang & Wang, 2007). Thefailure of any construction project is mostly related to the performanceproblems and there are many reasons and factors which are attributed to suchproblems. According to Okuwoga (2008), the performanceproblem is related to poor budgetary and time control, poormanagement skills and lack of monitoring and evaluation.
There is thereforeneed for successful implementation of water projects. Water supply isinstrumental in development (Bendahmane, 2013). Efforts acrossthe world have been made in development of water projects able to provide cleanand sufficient water for human population. 1.2 Statement of the ProblemKenya annual informal settlements growth is believed to thehighest at 5% and will double in the next 30 years if measures are not put intoplace (UNDP, 2006). The infrastructure in these residents arenot sufficient to cater for the huge number of residents, which leaves many ofthem without access to safe drinking water (UNEP, 2011). Apublication on Amnesty International (2010) showsthat, in Kenya there are 8.5million people that live in low-income settlements and the population willincrease rapidly at 6% per year.
According to the World Bank (2012),Kenya has almost forgotten its peri-urban poor in terms of WSS provision andhas concentrated on a few citizens living in big towns like Kisumu, Nakuru,Embu, Nairobi, and Mombasa among others. This has left the slum dwellers with80% lack of proper WSS. In Kitui for example, up to 76% of the slum populationhas no access to clean drinking water. This has led to the frequent outbreaksof cholera, typhoid, and dysentery among others in these areas (WHO,2012).The major challenges cited by the GoK that have contributed tothis include; Poor infrastructural development in these areas, Lack offinancial resources due to the strained national budget, Low rates of returnsto the government and other bodies in charge of WSS provision,Poor/un-coordinated physical planning making investments difficult.
The reportindicated that in places where water infrastructure is available, most of thetimes the taps went dry, some experienced low flow pressures, while others were totally vandalized bypeople who sell them as scrape metals.1.1.3 Local in KenyaThe institutions responsible for water and sanitationservice delivery in Uganda have undergone tremendous reform since the 1990s,with a marked improvement in their capacity and level of professionalism. This,coupled with steady investments in water supply infrastructure over the last 30years, has led to a remarkable improvement in access to safe water supplies inrural and urban areas. The use of improved sanitation has also increased, althoughat a lower rate. The Government of Uganda recognizes that these improvements inaccess have not been uniform.
There are wide discrepancies in access to ruralwater supplies between and within districts and in response the government hasadjusted resource allocation accordingly. The challenge to more equitableservice delivery is that many of the poorly served areas are also difficult toserve with cheap technologies, and anticipated public investments areinsufficient to address the scale of the problem (Schwartz, 2008).Tanzania is one country in East Africa that can be said tobe having a population structure that has almost a pure peri-urban settlement.This is evident in towns like Dar es Salaam, Tanga, Dodoma and Mwanza (Stacey et al., 2015). According to AfDB (2014), in April2013 discussions with staff from Dar es Salaam’s water utility, Dar es SalaamUrban Water and Sewerage Authority (DAWASA), it was noted that Dar es Salaamresidents with connections now have “rationing” where supply is only availablefor short periods. This was attributed in part to minimal investment over thelast 40 years, though AfDB funding of the Dar es Salaam Water Supply andSanitation Project (DWSSP) is enabling systematic rehabilitation of theexisting infrastructure.
Stacey et al. (2015) add that, in this country whereits annual water resources are at present average 2700 Cubic meters of waterper year, the situation is worse in informal settlements in urban areas likeArusha, Tanga, Mwanza and Dar es Salaam where, between one third of the urbanpopulation live without complete access to piped water and organized wastecontrol and management. According to Theodory (2009) forexample, it is only about 40% of the population in the slums of Arusha that is said haveto access to reliable water supply and very poor sanitation.In Africa, water shortage is related to both under developmentof potentially available water resources and their uneven distribution. This iscoupled up with an unrelenting population growth rate of 3% per year, which isa major factor in on-going water and sanitation problems. Water supply servicesin Zambia’s peri-urban areas vary widely from one settlement to another evenwithin the same town.
Water supply systems have been poorly maintained in thelast 20 years because local authorities and ministry departments as providershave absconded their capacity and professionalism to operate and sustain theseservices efficiently and effectively (Nwasco, 2015).This is similar to other countries like Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Angola, DRC etc. InZimbabwe for example, the government’s operation Murambats vinaled torural-urban migration, leading to growth of these settlements since 2000. Amajor challenge in these settlements is the lack of access to adequate water,which is contrary to the formal settlements, which have access to water andsanitation, serviced by the local authorities (World Bank, 2014).
The water challenge can be attributed to poor political representation, lack ofbudgetary allocation from the central over, poor management and poorlydeveloped infrastructure.1.1.2Regional PerspectiveOver the past three decades, the economy of China has grownthe fastest among major nations and now is ranked second in the world. However,China’s development is increasingly constrained by limited water resources. Asthe biggest developing country with the largest population, China has beenfacing serious water scarcity (Yong, 2009). With only 6% of the world’s totalwater resources and 9% of the world’s arable land, China feeds 21% of theworld’s population.
This achievement was not possible without a huge number ofwater conservancy projects for example dams, reservoirs, irrigationinfrastructure, and water transfer projects. Today, China possesses the largestnumber of dams (about half of the world’s total), the largest amount ofhydropower generation (20% of the world’s total), the largest irrigated area (?21%of the world’s total) (FAO, 2011), the largest hydropower project(Three Gorges Hydroelectric Project, TGHP) and water transfer project (i.e.South-to-North Water Transfer Project, SNWTP) of the world.
ForJapan water projects, consensus is built on the project plan and cost throughconsultations with and the hearing of opinions of the heads of administrativeorganizations and prefectural governors concerned as well as water users,following the designated procedures in each step. The Japan Water Agency (JWA)has completed 63 facility construction/reconstruction projects in the sevenriver systems that the government designated for the purpose of water resourcesdevelopment, namely, Tone, Ara, Toyo, Kiso, Yodo, Yoshino, and Chikugo RiverSystems. In addition, 11 other projects are ongoing in these systems. JWA iscurrently managing 52 facilities, including 30 dams and canals extending for3,030 kmTS6 .Indonesia is one country that has seen its population growuncontrollably with very little advances in maintaining constant water supply,waste check and management. According to the World Bank report(2013), in Indonesia, the WSS scenario is characterized by challengesin the access and low quality of service.
It is approximated that over 40million people lack access to improved water source, of the 240 million people,110 million have no access to improved sanitation, with only 2% having accessto sewerage, makes it one of the lowest among the middle-income countries (WHO,2010). A study by UNICEF (2013) shows that, implementing projectsthat could give relief to the residents in the slums has proofed difficult dueto challenges like; poor community participation, poor security, low rates ofreturn, political sideshows, poor infrastructure, poor urban planning and landownership among others.AStandish Group (2014) TS5 reportidentified that a staggering sixty-six percent of projects in the United Statesfailed to meet their objectives. Of the 40,000 cases studied, project failuretotaled $55 billion. This was made up of $38 billion in lost dollar value and$17 billion in cost overruns.
The good news is that the sixty-six percentfailure rate was an improvement over 1994’s drastic rate of eighty-fourpercent.1.1.1Global PerspectiveWater projects are influenced by a number of factors whichcontributes to successful project implementation, namely capacity and skills ofthe Project, the complexity of technology chosen, support of governmentleadership, adequacy of policies and legislation and factors controlled by theproject like; training, technology, cost of the project and construction quality(Bhandari & Grant, 2007).
Rudqvist and Woodford-Berger (2006) emphasizethe importance of strengthening monitoring and evaluation in attaining successfulproject implementation. In addition, some of the factors that affect thesustainability of Urban Slum water supply systems, are: lack of involvement ofthe community in selection of site and technology, implementation, operationand maintenance of the water source, lack of finances at the community levelfor operation and maintenance of water sources, use of complicated technologywithout proper capacity-building at community level (Gizachew, 2005).The current study will focus on implementation of water projects.According to Mochiemo (2014), the quality of life of people is threatened globally,it is approximated that 1.4 million people die from unavailable, clean drinkingwater; and 3.6 million people die each year from water-borne diseases.
Of thatnumber, children constitute 84% and 98% are living in the developing world. Thecrisis is real for those living in the developing world. The water crisis hasbecome a major issue that needs to be addressed in order to save the lives ofpoor people that are dying from preventable ailments. According to the UnitedNations Human Development Report, the crisis is claiming more lives in the developedworld than war claims through weapons (Water Facts, 2013).
According to Deloitte & Touche (2003), abrilliant project that cannot be implemented creates no real value. Effectiveimplementation begins during formulation when questions of how to do it shouldbe considered in parallel with what to do. Effective implementation resultswhen organization, resources and actions are tied to strategic priorities, andwhen key success factors are identified and performance measures and reportingare aligned. Implementation of a project calls for alteration of existingprocedures and policies.
In most organizations, project implementation requiresa shift in responsibility from strategists to divisional and functionalmanagers (Kazmi, 2002). It is therefore important toensure that there is a shift in responsibility to ensure successfulimplementation. The implementers of project should therefore be fully involvedin strategy formulation so that they can own the process. This can be done byconducting management training (Aosa, 2011; Kiruthi,2001; Sabatier & Weible, 2007).However,project implementation is a mystery in many organizations due to the complexityinvolved. In fact, most managers wouldrather participate in the formulation of a project rather that theimplementation.
This is because the success of project implementation is notassured. According to Raps andKauffman (2005) projectimplementation is recorded to have an unsatisfying low success rate (only 10 to30 percent) of the intended project. The failure of a project may have far-reachingconsequences to the organizationTS3 .TS4 These may include the loss of resources committed to project implementationwhich is hence treated as a sunk cost. It may lead to staff demonization, theloss of competiveness of an organization and the eventual unsustainability ofthe organization.
Project implementation challenges may include poor monitoringand evaluation, inadequate resources, the lack of fit between strategy andorganization structure and culture, unhealthy organization politics, lack ofmotivation of staff, the lack of involvement and participation of staff, thenegative perception and resistance emanating from staff and other stakeholders(Okumus,2003). A project is considered successful if it is delivered ontime, on schedule and acceptable quality (Wong, Cheung& Leung, 2008). However, a project is completed as a result of acombination of many events and interactions, planned or unplanned, over thelife of a facility, with changing participants and processes in a constantlychanging environment (Chan & Chan,2004). Project developmentinvolves numerous parties, various processes, different phases and stages ofwork and a great deal of input from both the public and private sectors, withthe major aim being to bring the project to a successful conclusion.
The levelof success in carrying out project development activities will depend heavilyon the quality of the managerial, financial, technical and organizationalperformance of the respectivepartiesTS1 ,while taking into consideration the associated risk management, the businessenvironment, and economic and political stability. According to Wang (2004), as project implementation is becoming morecomplex, a more sophisticated approach is necessary to deal with initiating,planning, financing, designing, approving, implementing and completing aproject. There is, therefore, a need to improve the project implementationTS2 .1.1Background of the StudyThis chapter entails background of the study which outlinesthe influence of critical success factors on the implementation of water projectsin Kitui County.
This chapter also outlines the statement of the problemindicating that there is poor and slow implementation of projects. Further,this chapter outlines the objectives of the study which the study will focus onand the research hypothesis which the study will test. Finally, this chapteroutlines the justification of the study, scope of the study, and limitations ofthe study.1.0IntroductionCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION