Another useful definition is from the Oxford Dictionary, and states: ‘the lack or loss of appetite for food’.
The translation from Latin to English simply means ‘the nervous loss of appetite’, which implies that the disorder is a chosen one, and is inflicted upon oneself, when in reality, a lot Of research has discovered that psychological influences play a huge part in the development as well.The attitude that Anorexia Nervous is simply ‘a teenage girls strive to be beautiful’ is one which is held my numerous people, and it is often seen as a lifestyle choice, not an illness- this attitude particularly being held by the sufferers themselves. The blame for causation is continuously thrust upon the modeling and magazine industry, however, modern research has discovered that there are genetic ND biological aspects to it, so while those industries may play a significant role, they are not the only cause.I chose this topic because it is one which has engaged my interest since the very beginning, allowing me also to develop my understanding for an illness which is very relevant to my age-group, as the majority of eating disorders are developed during puberty, which I will expand upon later. I have seen frequent interviews and documentaries about the ‘killer industries’; accusing modeling companies and magazines for causing the disorder, and this always seemed to interest me.I was particularly interested to find out whether just one aspect of our society today could be solely be to blame for such debilitating illness.
There was always something which seemed wrong with that, as believed that there was more to the illness that just environmental factors, and hoped, and succeeded, to find that there was evidence and research which would demonstrate that my ‘naive’ view was correct. Also wanted to recognize why the illness occurs, and have a more thorough understanding to it. In this report I will expand upon points have made above-following the Nature vs.
.Nurture structure, and explore the different aspects to the development of the disorder, and find out to what extend does the environment play on such an illness? There are many environmental factors which are thought to play a huge role in the development of the disorder, and it has come to the extent where the role has been exaggerated to the point where, to many, it is the one and only cause. Environmental factors range from media aspects, to our socio-culture, to the way children are brought up. The main one which often gets the blame is media.Magazines fill their pages with; ‘ways to lose weight’, irritating or congratulating celebrities on their weight, or photos of models that are extremely thin. Pubescent girls, already confused about their changing in body shape, often see these magazines as ‘bibles’ of which they should strive to look like the girls inside, or else they shall be criticized as the celebrities inside have been- with approximately 69% of girls between the ages of 9 to 16 saying that magazine pictures influence their idea of a perfect body weight.
Another aspect is social networking.Sites like Tumbler, a blobbing site which allows people to share photos and text post, is filled with photos of aunt-looking girls, include ‘pro-Ana’ blobs, which promote anorexia, listing reasons as to why the development of such an illness can be seen as beneficial, convincing people that limiting food intake to as little as possible, and excessively exercising, is the right way to go about weight-loss. While social networking sites alike tumbler are becoming more popular, it seems that the cases of Anorexia Nervous are rising too.
It is written in ‘Reflections on Genes and Eating Disorders’, by Karri Jasper, that our socio-culture ‘idealizes a body-shape that minimizes fat to pre-pubertal levels’. An example of our attitude to weight loss within our socio-culture, is the saying ‘a moment on the lips, forever on the hips’. This shows that our culture believes that in order to lose weight, you have greatly reduced your food intake, which can have a huge impact on young girls, as they are not educated on any healthy alternatives.The article ‘The incidence of Anorexia Nervous on Curacy’ emphasizes the role of solicitude in the development of anorexia nervous. This extremely diverse island is experiencing a socioeconomic transition- the island is becoming a lot more developed and its economy is vastly growing. The researchers expected to find that with the socioeconomic status of the country rising- the incidence rate of Anorexia Nervous would be becoming similar to the incidence rate in a more developed country, I. E. The USA; however their results where a lot different.
Although the overall incidence rate in Cargo is a lot lower than that of the SACS, the incidence rate in white/ mixed raced population was extremely similar. The researchers found 1 1 cases which fitted with the criteria used (ADSM-IV). However, none of these cases were African-Caribbean- two being white, and the other nine mixed race. All of the cases found had been abroad for longer than a year; in a more affluent country, and could be due to the transition between developing and developed country.Reasons as to why this was not the case could be due to the social impact which comes with a more affluent society has not yet emerged, or that although it is classed as a high income country- there is still a lot of unemployment, which limits their access to some aspects of the media. Another reason, and the most likely, reason being that the African-Caribbean view on body image is a lot different than that of the white/mixed race group; Ewing over-weight is generally a lot more socially excepted, as it shows wealth and fitness, creating a ‘resilience’ to the new emphasis on thinness.This study Is reliable because it was published in a respected journal, and although the doctor which had direct contact and responsibility to the patients could have been bias, and not given the correct data, Curaçao offers free healthcare regardless of wealth, such cases would have been detected, and eating disorders which are more difficult to detect, such as Bulimia Nervous, were detected, which makes this theory all the more unlikely.This research relates to my hypothesis, as it gives evidence that your environment plays a huge role in the development of anorexia, because as the economy was growing and the development was becoming a lot more developed, with more access to media, like the internet and Magazines, the cases of anorexia among certain ethnic groups were rising.
Also, the African-Caribbean population within Curaçao see body image in a very different way, and do not feel the same pressure to be ‘thin’- therefore, cases like Anorexia Nervous do not develop.During research I have read books written by anorexia sufferers homeless to Psychiatrists, written about experiences and causation. They talk about predisposing factors, environmental factors, coloratura factors, however they all agree on one thing: that there is not one reason as to why they occur. There are a number of different theories, from childhood development, to predisposing factors; factors which have to be present for a disorder to emerge, although they do not ‘pull the trigger’ to development.In Suzanne Abraham’s book, ‘Eating disorders’, she talks about the Psychological explanation, and particular personalities which are often recognized in anorexia nervous sufferers; perfectionism is often noticed, along with avoidance and anxious behavior, dependency and often neurotic behavior.
A lot of effective research has been done to find out the significance of genes in the development of anorexia, one of those being twin and family studies.Twin studies are particularly effective because they measure not only minimization twin, twins with the same genes, but idiotic twins, twins with different genes, as well, so means that they are able to measure the importance of genes in the disorders development. An article ‘Anorexia Nervous in one minimization twin’ written by P. Gordon et al. -published in the widely respected ‘American Journal of Charity, wrote; ‘Anorexia nervous is a multicultural disorder of unknown etiology, but genetic factors may play a significant role.A review of several twin studies on anorexia nervous (1 ) concluded that there was a higher concordance rate in minimization twins (56%) than in idiotic twins (7%), and the vulnerability component of anorexia nervous attributed to genetic influences was estimated as around 76% (2).
Molecular genetics has not yet located the ones potentially involved, partly because the inherited phenotype is unknown. ‘ As the twins tested were minimization, this is clear that genes do play quite a significant role in the development, as the ‘concordance rate’ was 49% higher than when idiotic twins were tested.Another report, ‘reflections on genes and eating disorders’, written by Karri Jasper, as the actual involvement of genes in the development of anorexia is unknown, suggested that the genetic codes didn’t directly cause the development, however causes the patient to have different mood levels, for example suffer room anxiety, ‘novelty-seeking’ or cause ‘traits’ such as perfectionism and perseverance- all of which comply with the personalities observed in anorexia nervous sufferers.