Toconstruct Rana Plaza, we found that they provided low cost for materials. Thisis because, they wanted to cut cost on the project and they hired builder whichdoes not have experience in construction. As a result, the quality of materialsincluding cement may not comply with international standards because of poorquality control and problems associated with transportation and storage.
Concretemix produces good results in terms of adding strength to the constructionstructure. However, during construction of Plaza, the portion of water tocement ratio to make a concrete mix are not follow the standard concretespecifications. The reason of that is they used too much sand and making itmore brittle and weak. Negligence to meet the proper requirements in obtainingthe right ingredient in concrete making leads to formation of cracks and poorbuilding structure with seepage possibilities which could be seen throughoutthe structure of the Rana Plaza. Some of these cracks were as much as twoinches deep.
Furthermore, the other mistakes which they have no idea will givea big impact to the building performance is the sub floors were cast too thinand did not have necessary depth and strength needed to disperse and supportthe loads from building. Thereinforcing steel used in the concrete also contribute to the formation ofcracks. They faced a difficulty in obtain steel reinforcement due tounavailability and high cost. Consequently, they made decision by reducingsteel embedded in the concrete in order to decrease the budget.
Indirectly,they were not follow the original design stated in drawing. The overall strengthof the concrete was drastically decrease and made it much more susceptible totension loads. Furthermore, they used plain bars as reinforcing rather thatdeformed bars. In fact, they know deform bar are good in adheres to concretecompare to plain bar because it has greater bearing surface. Reinforcementbar’s surface is often designed to form a better bond with the concrete,providing more tensile support in the concrete and reinforced masonrystructures. From the situation above, Rana Plaza structure was weaker and doesnot have enough strength to hold the concrete in tension.
TheRegistration of Engineers Act 1997 stresses that engineers must hold paramountthe safety, health and welfare of the public. Engineer obligations to thesociety requires them to prepare a safe design at minimal cost. Hence, theymust ensure that the other party who is engaged to do work likely to affect thestructures they have designed are competent and will carry out the work in aworkmanlike manner. For example, engineers need to do an inspection beforeworker cast concrete to the beam to make sure they follow design drawing.According to theDietz (2013), initially they wanted to design a structure with a four-storeybuilding that would house primarily retail and office space. Nonetheless, theyillegally construct four additionally floors to the structure which in fact thebuilding cannot bear the additional loading because of the building load werenot in the original design.
As a result, the building experienced tremendousstress from the extra load. Sohel Rana had these extra floor built withoutgetting the approval from local government through bribes and extortion.Furthermore, the engineer also took bribe from the client to construct thebuilding illegally to earn more money. Banks and retail space were placed atfirst and second floors while garment factories were occupied at the thirdthrough eight floors. These factories were occupying by heavy sewing equipment,hundreds of employees and, large stockpiles of garments and fabrics. Thesethings produce much larger loads compare to the design load that contributes tothe formation of cracks. After a few months construct the building,they were have a problem where the building’s electricity went out frequently.
To overcome this problem, they installed four diesel generators on the roof ofthe Rana Plaza. The roof of Rana Plaza was not designed to sustain the weightof these generators, each weighing several metric tons. Thus, the operation ofthese generators caused the structure to shaking noticeably, imperil itfurther. Results from noticeable shaking, the building was settle deeper andthe foundation fail to sustain the structure and collapse happened afterwards.
Fromthe situation above, we noticed that engineer take any profit that is earnedfrom the construction, but such action is prohibited as stated in Item 5.2 ofBEM Guidelines for Code of Practice. Item 5.2 stated that Registered Engineershall not offer, give, solicit, or receive, either directly any contribution toinfluence the award of a contract which may reasonably be construed as havingthe effect of intent to influencing the award of a contact. He shall not offerany gift or other valuable consideration in order to secure work. He shall notpay a commission, percentage or brokerage fee in order to secure work. Theengineer also does not report to the authorities of Sohel Rana’s (client)wrongdoings as explained above.
The silence actions of engineer proved that he breakthe Code of Ethic. Their obligation required them to ensure that the law isfollowed, and report to the authorities, if necessary, if their clients breakthe law, even at the risk of being discharged by their clients”. The engineersare prohibited from taking bribes because the services provided by engineersshould require honesty, impartiality, fairness and equity and must be dedicatedto the protection of the public health, safety and welfare. So, engineer shallact to uphold the honor, integrity and dignity of engineering profession.