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TMA Cover Form FACULTY OF LANGUAGE STUDIES TMA COVER FORM: U214A Worlds of English IPart (I): STUDENT INFORMATION (to be completed by student) 1. Name: Rana Ashraf Ahmed2. Student ID No: 1403093.

Section No: 2044. Tel. : 998170655.

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E-mail: [email protected] confirm that the work presented here is my own and is not copied from any source. Student’s signature: Rana ashrafPart (II): TUTOR’S REMARKS (to be completed by tutor) Tutor name: Signature: Date TMA received: Date returned: TUTOR’S REMARKS: Content and Organization (16 pts) Referencing and Citation(4pts)Earned Mark U214 A TMA Semester 1, 2017-2018Cut-off date: Week 10Length: 1500-2000 wordsQuestion The codification of English was an essential component in the process of standardization.

Discuss the codification of English with reference to dictionary compilation. Areas of DiscussionAreas of discussing the TMA’s topic are related to U214A course book 1 English in the World, and particularly Unit 2, Reading B and DVD1, clip 2.2 Important Guidelines Discussing the TMA’s subject matter has to draw on the following ideas:The history of how English has been codified in dictionaries and grammar books (5 pts)The reasons why dictionaries were commissioned (5pts)The criteria used for including words in the dictionary (5 pts)The extent to which a dictionary is considered to be a prescriptive or descriptive account of English (5pts)N.B. Students need to read Unit 2 and reading B and think about the TMA questions as they read. Students need to listen to DVD1, clip2.

2 and take notes relating to the TMA question. When writing, students need to pay attention to structure, layout and correct language and use appropriate referencing and citation. Please note that, in addition to the textbook materials, students are strongly recommended to consult two or more of the following referencesRecommended Bibliography De Maria, R.

(1986). Johnson’s Dictionary and the Language of Learning. Oxford. Clarendon Press.Hitchings, H. (2005). Defining the World: the Extraordinary Story of Dr.

Johnson’s Dictionary. New York. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Lynch, J (2002). Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary: Selections from the 1755 Work that Defined the English Language. New York. Walker and Co.Reddick, A. (1990). The Making of Johnson’s Dictionary 1746 – 1773.

Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.Using the e-libraryYou can include information from the course book but it is highly recommended to use external sources from the e-library.

You are requested to visit the e-library on campus and use it to carry out your TMAs properly. You are also requested to show your tutor that you used the e-library to complete your TMA. But avoid submitting a copy/paste paper, it is a plagiarized work, which is strictly banned and firmly penalized by AOU. Guidelines on Plagiarism If you submit an assignment that contains work other than yours without acknowledging the sources, you are committing plagiarism. This might occur when:Using a sentence or phrase that you have come acrossCopying word-for-word directly from a textParaphrasing the words from the text very closelyUsing text downloaded from the InternetBorrowing statistics or assembled fact from another person or sourceCopying or downloading figures, photographs, pictures or diagrams without acknowledging your sourcesCopying from the notes or essays of a fellow student(Slightly adapted from OU document on quoting versus plagiarism)It is important to remember that plagiarism is strictly barred and would be subject to punitive action by the Arab Open University.

Marking Grid GRADE CONTENT LANGUAGE ; ORGANIZATIONAExcellent answers showing confident and wide-ranging knowledge of core material, good understanding of any relevant theory, and a capacity to address the question in a structural, direct and effective way, thoughtfully and with insight. Originality of thought or ideas from outside the course are an added asset. Examples are to the point. – Has an introduction defining plan of essay.

– Body divided into several paragraphs- Conclusion which directly relates arguments to topic.- Error-free grammar ; register.- Wide range of specialized terminology.B to B+Very good answers showing secure knowledge of course materials. Adopting an analytical approach and providing relevant discussion covering most of the key issues. Distinguished from A answers by being less insightful or by showing less comprehensive knowledge of the course.

– First four criteria above maintained- Demonstrates extensive grammar control.- Terminology specialized but less varied.C to C+Competent answers reflecting adequate knowledge of the more directly relevant course material and concepts, with reasonable structure and adequate coherence related to the question set. – Introduction and/or conclusion short but still satisfactory. – Less grammar control than above.- Good range of specialized terminology.DAnswers which omit some concepts /evidence and/or lack coherence /structure, and/or make minor errors while still demonstrating basic understanding.

Or Bare pass answers which show awareness of some relevant material and attempt to relate it to the question. – Introduction and/or conclusion short but acceptable. – Few grammatical errors that impede communication.- Above average range of specialized terminology.- Slightly confused introduction and/or conclusion, but body still fair.

– No evidence of editing.- Some error types that impede communication.- Fair range of specialized terminology.FAnswers which attempt to draw upon relevant material but do not reflect sufficient knowledge of the course and/or neglect the focus required by the question, and/or are incomplete in some important aspects whilst being acceptable in others. – No introduction and /or no conclusion.- Body badly organized or irrelevant.

– Poor grammar control (extremely limited range of grammar ; register).- Limited or not specialized range of terminology. The Codification in English In our current day, English has become an international language that is used all around the world, but in its beginnings, it was a language with no strong identity and it was just one of the many languages which were spoken in Britain, first emerging when a number of German tribes from north of Europe -currently known as the Anglo Saxons- arrived in Britain with their own dialects. During that period of time, Latin was the dominant language in Britain. English language has a long history of being standardized and codified.

The word standardization stands for unity and consistency, and when it’s used in reference to a certain language it can be defined as the process of establishing and maintaining conventional forms or patterns of that language. When it comes to the English Language, Standard English is referred to any type of the English dialect that is acknowledged as a national standard in an English-talking nation. There are several stages of the language standardization process including selection, codification, elaboration and implementation. The main focus in this paper is the codification and the role it had played over the years in shaping the English Language we know today.

Codification is the process of systematically organizing and arranging norms and capturing them in dictionaries, grammars, language guides and text books. Codifying a language varies from case to case and mostly relies on the process of selection which already exists. First of all, A dictionary is known to be a collection of words in one or more specific languages.

Most people nowadays believe that the first English dictionary ever made was (A Dictionary of the English Language), published by Samuel Johnson in 1755, which is not a true fact. The history of the English Language being codified can be traced back to the 17th century in Britain. Before English was used as the main language in England, the citizens who lived on the land spoke more than one language and the earliest known dictionaries were glossaries which consisted of French, Spanish or Latin words with their definitions in English. Things proceeded to change during the Elizabethan era and Shakespeare when the use of Latin and French languages started to decline and English became a language with its own independent identity. During the 17th – 18th century, many developed dictionaries were published.

The first extant monolingual English alphabetical dictionary known was by Robert Cawdrey in 1604 called (A Table Alphabeticall) which contained three thousand hard words with simple definitions. The aim of this dictionary was to define those hard words, not to correct spelling or show the right use of vocabulary. The standards were set for lexicons in both England and America when (A Dictionary of The English Language) by Samuel Johnson was published in 1755.

The dictionary was meant to have three years of work, but even with the help of six assistants, it took Johnson eight years to finish his dictionary. At the time that Johnson made the dictionary, the role of grammarians had shrunk and Johnson’s dictionary a milestone for both standard English and lexicography. The main reason his dictionary was so exceptional was that he made use of several techniques which grammarians had used before. No grammarian or lexicographer before Johnson had ever approached language in such a detailed and full way as Johnson had. His aim was not only to provide his reader with full knowledge of the language but to entertain them and to also make English accessible for all readers as well. Johnson saw himself as the protector of the English language.

In 1762, Thomas Sheridan said about Johnson: “If our language should ever be fixed, Johnson must be considered by all posterity as the founder and his dictionary as the cornerstone” In the early days, the commissioning of dictionaries was originally intended for non-native speakers, especially scots in particular during the passing of the Act of Union back in 1707, with the purpose of teaching them the English language and uniting the nation under one united language that would be spoken in all of Great Britain and not only in England, however, things changed upon the growth in the use and need of standardized material for the native speakers as well. As everything around the world started developing and as the British nation started expanding, so did the language. The dictionaries became the material that people can look into to be informed about the new and developed language and all the different aspects of it, and not only for the political reasons it was originally intended for.

Although European countries started language academies to codify the language, the English-speaking countries did not follow this trend and there was never a recognized academy for standardization in neither the United States nor Britain. Dictionaries first started as a list of different hard words of the languages which were spoken at the time in Britain. That was until the publication of Samuel Johnson’s (A Dictionary of The English Language) also known as (Johnson’s Dictionary) which affected the creation and use of dictionaries in a great and modern way. By the time Johnson had developed his dictionary, the spelling system had already taken place in England. During that time, Johnson’s dictionary was a reference to both British and American dialect, and due to the political independence, that the United States underwent, Noah Webster distinguished between the American English and the British English by coming up with an American-dialect dictionary that contained American based definitions. Dictionaries are now the main source of finding all kinds of words and phrases in any language, and they continue to advance and develop every day.

There is no denying that there are new English words and phrases created as each day passes by and there seems to be no end to the limits of the English words. As new words are created and discovered, dictionaries must keep track of them and add those which are found to be acceptable in the English Language. Nowadays, dictionaries do not come only in a text format like it used to, but also can be reached online and their accessibility is so easy that any word can be found in the dictionary from any smart phone instantly. The way words are added to the dictionaries has changed over the years. In the past centuries, the list of words in dictionaries were added by writers when they were viewed useful even if they have never been used before.

In the current years, things have changed and words are now added based on their social relevancy when they have been used by a wide range of people for a period of time, therefore, the personal inventions that have been used before are not allowed in the modern days. Lexicographers have two ways of defining words: prescriptive or descriptive. The prescriptive dictionaries focus more on Standard English, unlike the descriptive dictionaries which mainly describe the language itself.

It’s safe to say that most, if not all, English dictionaries are known to be descriptive as they describe the language and include words which are widely used even if they are not standard in the language itself nor has a standard spelling. On the other hand, Prescriptive dictionaries are more concerned about the standard or correct English. They explain the language rules that should be followed and they prescribe the proper spelling and usage of words.

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