Throughout recent history, aid has been provided to a multitude of countries, including aid given to Europe in order to help rebuild after WWII (Calamitosi, 2018). In today’s context, aid is given to help humanitarian issues, encourage economic independence, and to accomplish other developmental goals (Calamitosi, 2018). The official development assistance (ODA), or aid, is when “funds are provided by governments to promote the development and welfare of developing countries (Calamitosi, 2018).” The use of ODA and how it should work is attempted to be answered by two frameworks, the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action. They were created to help the partnerships between donor countries and countries that receive aid, and increase the benefits of aid (Calamitosi, 2018). If ODA is ineffective it often leads to “an increase in corruption, bureaucracy and debt while also harming democratic systems, independence and local businesses (Calamitosi, 2018).
” Questions about this topic include: Has the aid been effective? Has the efficiency and effectiveness of aid been improved? Has the quality and impact of aid been improved? Have the frameworks helped? To better understand these questions, the goals of these frameworks should be studied. The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness agreed to develop a genuine partnership, with developing countries clearly in charge of their development processes and to hold each other accountable for achieving concrete development goals (OECD, 2005). It provided momentum to change the way donor and developing countries worked together. “The Accra Agenda for Action was designed to strengthen and deepen the implementation of the Paris Declaration (AAAA, 2008).” The Agenda included stronger partnerships so that developing countries could realize their development goals while also promoting peace and prosperity, world poverty was reduced, progress can be reviewed, and challenges faced today can be addressed (AAAA,2008). The agenda also discusses the three challenges that affects aid effectiveness progress (country ownership is key, building more inclusive and effective partnerships, achieving development results) (AAAA, 2008). There have been many actions previously taken by international organizations and UN bodies.
During the 1980’s and 1990’s there was development regression caused by multiple reasons but partially due to aid and debt relief not increasing and aid models were more focused on donor political and commercial interests rather than the needs of the local people of the recipient countries (Calamitosi, 2018). This led for a need to change, the issue was somewhat acknowledged in the Millennium Declaration (2000), and the creation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s), but the first real acknowledgement was at the 2002 International Conference on Financing for Development in Monterrey, Mexico (Calamitosi, 2018). The conference created the Monterrey Consensus (2002) which created the shift in how development aid was viewed (Calamitosi, 2018).
Donor countries agreed to contribute 0.7% of their gross national income as ODA and committed to adapt aid to each of the recipient’s needs while working to improve aid effectiveness (Calamitosi, 2018). During the following year, the First High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness was held in Rome (Calamitosi, 2018). The Rome Declaration on Harmonization was the outcome, it was a “document that laid the basic framework for improving aid effectiveness,” which included regular review for improvement (Calamitosi, 2018). There were three more High Level Forums. The second forum was created to expand the framework created by the Rome Declaration, the outcome was the Paris Declaration (2005) (Calamitosi, 2018).
The declaration had donors and recipients commit to improve aid effectiveness through five principles: ownership, alignment, harmonization, results/measurement, and mutual accountability (Calamitosi, 2018). The principles allowed the recipient countries to be more involved in their development progress (Calamitosi, 2018). The Declaration resulted in 56 commitments following the principles, and 12 country level indicators used to track progress (Calamitosi, 2018). The indicators led to the realization that there needed to be more focus on results and the accomplishment of MDG’s (Calamitosi, 2018).