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            This section presents the differentliterature and studies related to this study, which may serve as underpinningsof the study’s directions and discussion. This contains studies on physicalactivity, barriers in physical activity participation and demographic profilesrelated to the said barriers. The last part of this section is the conceptualframework of the study. Physical Activity            Physical activities give a greatimpact to an individual. It explains the kind of lifestyle and the pattern youhave from your childhood years to the current year. These activities such aswalking, running, dancing, swimming, and gardening are some examples that wouldimprove your psychological health benefits and cardio respiratory fitness (Salis & Patrick, 1994; and Jones et al., 1998)that will serve as your important weapon as you engage in the different dailyactivities.

One study indicated that as a developing country, cardiovascularmorbidity and mortality are high in other country and physical activity iscommon in both genders (Onat, 2001). The schoolchildrenthat were in the 7 to 18 years old age group had a low level of physicalactivity and prevalence of physical of physical inactivity increased in the15-18 year old age group in both sexes. Despite of dramatic reports, to ourknowledge, there is no study that assessed physical activity barriers for youngadult in other country.            Physical activity has been definedas any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles and resulting in energy expenditure (Caspersen, 1985; and WHO, 2000).

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These include movements performed while performing household chores,recreational activities, gardening, dancing, playing, and doing exercise.Regular physical activity is essential for quality of life and health (Tayloret al., 2004). Consistent physical activity is linked with numerous physicaland mental health benefits across the life span, including improvedcardiovascular fitness, bone health, functional health, and cognitivefunctioning (Lee I, et al., 2012). Stayingphysically active is also important for the growing elderly population (WHO, 2000).

Both Norwegian and internationalpolicy for adults are encouraging physical activities as long as the person iscapable (Report No. 47 2008-2009). The WHO (2010)recommends at least 150 minutes of physical activity of moderate to high intensityevery week for adults above 65 years old. In Australia, the recommendations forolder people are 30 minutes of moderate intensity on most, preferably all,days. However, physical activities can also be part of our ordinary daily life,such as doing house- work and shopping etc.

, also referred to as non-exercisephysical activity (NEPA) (Ekblom-Bak et al., 2013).            Conversely, physical inactivity hasbeen shown to increase adults’ risk for numerous chronic health problems suchas coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, and depression.

(Lee, I., et al, 2012; Cooney, G.M.

, et al, 2013; and Penejo,F.J., et al, 2005). In addition, a recent report from the World HealthOrganization estimated that physical inactivity causes 30% of heart disease,27% of type 2 diabetes, and 21% – 25% of breast and colon cancers worldwide (WHO 2016). Perhaps even more concerning, physicalinactivity is believed to be responsible for 9% of all premature deaths acrossthe globe, making it the fourth leading cause of death, on par with smoking andobesity (Lee, I., et al, 2012; and Kohl, H.W., et.

al., 2012). Taken together, these data clearly indicate that physicalinactivity is a potent and prominent risk factor for both chronic disease andearly death.             Inactivity is common in all agegroups, with older adults (age 65 years and older) being one of the mostinactive populations (United States Department ofHealth and Human Services USDHHS, 2000). Only 10 – 30% of older adultsreport engaging in regular exercise. 28% to 34% of adults age 65 – 74, and 35% –44% of adults age 75 or older do not engage in regular moderate-intensityphysical activity as recommended (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention,2002; Schutzer & Graves, 2004).

About 25% of adults age 55 – 64 reported as”not being active in the last month” (Behavior RiskFactor Surveillance System BRFSS, 2005). This age group needs to be acknowledgedbecause it represents the next generation of older adults. Considering thesestatistics, in 2030, an estimated number of persons age 65 and older will reach70 million in the United States, and the fact that persons ? 85 years oldrepresent the fastest growing population segment (ACSM,1998), it is imperative to understand the reasons for the lowparticipation in regular physical activity among both the current older adultand upcoming older adult populations (Michael,Colditz, Coakley, & Kawachi, 1999; Orsega-Smith, Payne, & Godbey, 2003;Taylor et al., 2004; USDHHS, 2000).             Physical inactivity is modifiablerisks factor for chronic diseases such coronary artery disease and typediabetes (Barengo, Hu, Lakka, & Pekkarinen, 2004;Batty, 2000; Franco, et al., 2005; Stewart, et al.

, 2005). A systematicreview of epidemiological studies into effect of physical activity on coronaryheart disease in order adults (Batty, 2002)concluded that the majority of studies provided some evidence of the cardio-protectiveeffects of exercise and that this involvement was unlikely to be due to reverseconnection variables. In another observation study of thirty thousandmiddle-aged Finnish residents, Barengo et al.(2004) reported that the moderate recreational and workplace physicalactivities were positively associated with reduced cardiovascular disease andlower all-cause mortality.

In further research study, it reported that men andwomen aged over 50, total life expectancy and cardiovascular disease-free lifeexpectancy was enhanced by regular participation in moderate to high intensityof physical activities (Franco, et al., 2005).             Regular physical activity is alsoknown as an effective preventative measure against and treatment for thecontrol of type II diabetes mellitus (Hu, Lakka, &Pekkarinen, 2004) physical activity can also play a major role in theprevention of, and recovery from, cancer. In recent review articles, theauthors found convincing evidence for physical activity deducing risk of breastcancer in women and color cancer in both men and women (Pinto&Hartman, 2010). Participating in exercise has also been associated withbenefits during and following treatment for cancer, including improvements inpsychosocial and physical outcomes, as well as better compliance and treatment (Chan, et al., 2005). Participation in physicalactivity has also been reported to improve memory function and has thepotential to improve quality of sleep and reduce the level of dementia. Adultswho engaged regularly assumed dance, sports and mind-body exercise whencompared with sedentary activities.

            Physical activities give a great impactto an individual. It explains the kind of lifestyle and the pattern you havefrom your childhood years to the current year. These activities such aswalking, running, dancing, swimming, and gardening are some examples that wouldimprove your psychological health benefits and cardio respiratory fitness (Jones et..,1998; Salis and Patrick, 1994;)  that will serve as your important weapon asyou engage in the different daily activities. Another study indicated that as adeveloping country, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are high in othercountry and physical activity is common in both genders (Onat,2001). The schoolchildren that were in the 7 to 18 yearsold age group had a low level of physical activity and prevalence of physicalof physical inactivity increased in the 15-18 year old age group in both sexes.Despite of dramatic reports, to our knowledge, there is no study that assessedphysical activity barriers for young adult in other country.

            According to the Department ofHealth and Human Services’ “2008 Physical ActivityGuidelines for Americans,” physical activity generally refers tomovement that enhances health. Exercise is a type of physical activity that isplanned and structured. Lifting weights, taking an aerobics class, and playingon a sports team are examples of exercise. Keeping the body fit and soundrequires eating healthy foods and participating in different fitnessactivities. The best decision that stands in your feet is participating in afitness-training programs it can be indoor or outdoor that practically dependsonly of how strongly you want to accomplish considering contemporary contextsin which fitness is very fashionable and popular. The industry faces greatpopularity after a great development in trainers, programs and their variety. Outdoor physical activity is a challenge for all schools even before (Alliance for a Healthier Generation, 2012).

            In addition, physical activity isgood for many parts of your body. This article focuses on the benefits ofphysical activity for your heart and lungs. The article also provides tips forgetting started and staying active and it discusses physical activity as partof a heart healthy lifestyle.

Being physically active is one of the best waysto keep your heart and lungs healthy. Following a healthy diet and not smokingare other important ways to keep your heart and lungs healthy. Physicalactivity is a leading example of how lifestyle choices have a profound effecton health. The choices we make about other lifestyle factors, such as diet,smoking, and alcohol use, also have important and independent effects on ourhealth.            The primary audiences for the PhysicalActivity Guidelines for American are policy makers and healthprofessionals. The guidelines are designed to provide information and guidanceon the types and amounts of physical activity that provide substantial healthbenefits. This information may also be useful to interested members of thepublic. The main idea behind the guidelines is that regular physical activityover month and years can produce long-term benefits.

Realizing those, benefitsrequire physical activity each week. Likewise, baseline activity refers to thelight-intensity activities of daily life, such as standing, walking slowly, andlifting lightweight objects. People vary in how much baseline activity they do.People who do only baseline activity are considered to be inactive.

They may dovery short episodes of moderate or vigorous-intensity, such as climbing a fewflights of stairs, but these episodes aren’t long enough to count towardmeeting the guidelines. The guidelines don’t comment on how variations in typesand amounts of baseline physical activity might affect health, as this was notaddressed by the advisory committee report.            Health-enhancing physical activityis activity that, when add to baseline activity, produces health benefits.

Inthis document, the term “physical activity” generally refers tohealth-enhancing physical activity. Brisk walking, jumping rope, dancing,lifting weights, climbing on playground equipment at recess, and doing yoga areall examples of physical activity. Some people (such as postal carriers orcarpenters on construction sites) may get enough physical activity on the jobto meet the Guidelines.            The physical activity participationwas related to some motivational construct but it showed generally lowcorrelations with implicit motivational strategies related to self-regulation.The strongest relationship has been found between both scales of physicalactivity and self-efficacy beliefs related to the overcoming barriers ofphysical activity and self-efficacy beliefs related to physical activity andpart of the lifestyles. Moreover, physicalactivity for at least 30 minutes per day, particularly if more intense, wasassociated with reduction in long-term weight gain. They also concluded thatthe form of physical activity was not as important as total energy expenditurefor weight gain ‘avoided weight gain > 5% in five years’, a 4.5% (five year)increase in weight for a 70 kg woman would increase body mass index (BMI) by morethan two points in ten years (Department of Health,2012).

In addition, physical activity was associated with lessweight gain only in women with initial BMI < 25 kg/m2. Women inthis BMI category, who maintained their weight and gained < 2.3 kg over 13years, averaged physical activity equating with 21.5 metabolic equivalent oftask (MET) hours/week over six follow-ups in 13 years. This translates to aboutan hour a day of moderate intensity activity.  Brown J.

W. etal., (2012 ) This study is important as it highlights the fact thatphysical activity was not protective against weight gain in women who wereoverweight at baseline. Results from the Australian Longitudinal Study onWomen’s Health have also shown that the rate of weight gain over ten years ishigher in younger (age 18 – 23 years at baseline) adult women with BMI > 25than those with healthy BMI. Data from that study also show that women whoreported doing no physical activity gained an average of 7.9kg in 10 years,while those in the low (40 – < 600 MET.min/week), moderate (600 - < 1200)and high ( > 1200) physical activity categories gained 7.

1, 6.6 and 4.3 kgrespectively. As the women in the highest physical activity category(corresponding to about 50 minutes of daily moderate intensity activity) gained(on average) more than 4 kg in ten years, it is reasonable to assume that moreactivity is required for prevention of weight gain. Barriers in Physical Activity Participation            Sechristet al. (1987) studied exercising and non-exercising adults (ages 18-88years)to determine barriers to exercise. The sample was from the community at large,with 71% reporting full-time employment. They identified four main barrierfactors to physical activity: exercise milieu, time expenditure, physical exertion,and family discouragement.

  The exercisemilieu factors included location of facilities, costs of exercise, and numberof places to exercise, while the time expenditure items included time takenfrom family responsibilities, busy work schedules, or busy social schedules. Onthe other hand, physical exertion factors characterized the fatiguing nature ofexercise. Finally, lack of encouragement from spouse and family describedfamily discouragement factors.             Barriers may be specific topopulation subgroups (e.g., employed or working).

Specific physical activitybarriers have been identified for women, older adults, and under- served groups(Heesch, Brown, & Blanton, 2000; Marcus, 1995).Generally, the most prevalently self-reported reason for inactivity isperceived lack of time. Jaffee, Lutter, Rex,Hawkes, and Bucaccio (1999) reported that lack of time due to workcommitments was the most commonly cited barrier for working women, followed bylack of time due to family commitments. Time management also was a barrier tophysical activity following college graduation (Calfas,Sallis, Lovato, & Campbell, 1994) and for women during pregnancy (Godin et al.

, 1994). Lack of time appearsto be the principal reason reported for dropping out of physical activity programs(King, et al., 1992). However, lack of timemight reflect a lack of self-motivation.

Moreover, a1994 Canadian study found that recreation services have variety of systemicbarriers such as socio-economic, organizational, communication, cultural andgender barriers.             Participationin physical activity plays an important role in maintaining physical and mentalhealth and in overall well being for older adults (Warburton2006, McGuire et al. 2009). Despite the recognized benefits of exercise,however, research suggests that the majority of older adults in Canada arephysically inactive (Bryan and Walsh 2004,Katzmarzyk and Janssen 2004). For many older adults, participation inphysical activity decreases with age (Center for Disease Control andPrevention, 2007) and for those who do engage in regular exercise, the ageingprocess may have an impact on the nature, motivation and meaning of leisure timephysical activity (McGuire, et al., 2009).            Indesigning a university-wide fitness program, Health and physical education unitand other university departments continue to face the perception problems whenit comes to their reputation on campus (Forbes, 2006).

The training, studentship, and research that transpire in physicaleducation, health education, exercise science, sports management and athletictraining and other kinesiology-related programs are traditionally misunderstoodby the average faculty outside the physical education community. Since that,they are housed in the same building as athletic facilities. The programs areviewed by many as an extension of the school’s athletic programs and not ascomparable to the other academic program (Knudson, 2005).            Additionally,when housed with athletic facilities, which are often located inside the schoolpremises.

There are physical barriers to interaction and collaboration withother academic departments creating a general misunderstanding of the nature ofacademic works that occur in the kinesiology areas. All of these factors leadto an overall image problem for university health, physical education, and otherprograms. There are many options to choose from perception problem, onesolution is to offer a faculty and staff fitness program. A well-organized fitnessprogram for the university personnel’s implemented by the health and physicaleducation that can showcase the academic and leadership skills among theparticipants. By its environment, university wide fitness programs provide opportunityfor interactions between the faculties of all connect with the academiciansfrom variety of areas. Finally, a faculty and staff fitness program canprovides an important service to the community a reason to hold the value ofhealth and physical education in high regards (Vansickle,

, 2010)            American Bureau of Statistics (2007b) aged 65 aboveadults were asked open questions about barriers to participation in physicalactivities with their responses being coded into broad categories. Out of 1,557respondents, 56% responded, that they are too old to participate in differentphysical activities while 20% are injured and 9% are not interested toparticipate. In contrast, the studies by Booth, Baumanand Owen (2002) required respondents to pick their main barriers from limitedlists. A thoughtful response from the respondents is needed of what respondentsmean, when they describe themselves as too old or not having enough time to exercise,as these phases alone do not provide the depth understanding required tosuccessful overcome the barriers. This stands to reason when the main barriersidentified for not participating in more exercise were age, injury, and theirpoor health.

In the two studies, on the ABS population asked about the drivesfor exercise. A more comprehensive understanding on how these barriers might beovercome and it would contribute greatly to future programs to enhanceparticipation rats and levels of activity.            Severalstudies towards a greater understanding of these barriers comes from a reviewarticle by Allender, et al.,(2006) reportedthat most participants across the age group were aware of the health benefitsof being physically active only, the older adults participants reported thatsaid cognizant of benefits is the reason for participation. The health benefitsof physical activity for older adults were described as contrivance forlessening the effects of ageing and being fit enough to be with theirgrandchildren during playing time.

It was the social connections formed ofenjoyment of the activities that encouraged regular participation. In Allender’sstudy, the main barriers to older people being more physical active wereunclear guidance about the correct quantity of physical activity and lack ofage appropriate role models. In addition, commonly reported barriers werehealth related problems, fear in ageing and physical activity was enabled bypositive outcome expectations, social support and there is no access toprogram. Lastly the present study is aim to have depth understanding the barriersto physical activity participation so that the hope for exploring the activeexperience and ways to overcome the different barriers.

            Asa worldwide leader in exercise and sports science, the ACSM is instrumental inproducing activity guidelines in which it articulates through the release oftheir stands. The ACSM is the largest sports medicine and exercise scienceorganization in the world whose charter is to advance health through science,education, and medicine (American College of SportsMedicine, 2014a) As such, ACSM guidelines and position stands formcornerstone of practice for exercise professional worldwide. The concept of ActiveLiving – Options and benefits for adults from the ACSM, the concept of activeliving refers to the a way of life that integrates physical activity into one’sdaily routines, such as walking to the store or biking to work.

Health professionaland researchers focus on the health and fitness benefits of exercise, primarilyon leisure-time physical activity, typically engagement in sports relatedactivities. From this work came traditional exercise guidelines thatrecommended that all adults should exercise three to five minutes a week for 20to 60 minutes, at a vigorous (60% – 90% heart rate maximum) intensity. In theirguidelines to older adults the ACSM suggest that to promote and maintainhealth, older adults need moderate – intensity aerobic physical activity forminimum of 30 minutes on 5 days each week or vigorous – intensity for a minimumof 20 minutes of 3 days each week. Combination of moderate – and vigorous – intensityactivity can be performed to meet the recommendation. Current guidelinesrecognize that the amounts of physical activity are usually associated withincreased of health benefits. ACSM pointed out that these recommendations helpto maintain good health.

 ConceptualFramework            In spite of the ever-growing body ofevidence showing that the health benefits of regular, moderate physicalactivity are extensive for all individuals, there has been a significantdecline in physical activity levels among Filipino adults. Many people believethat physical activity is important for health, and many may think strenuousexercise is needed to achieve or maintain fitness and health(Beighle and Morrow, 2014) However, knowledge of the benefits alone isnot sufficient to incentivize increases in physical activity or fitness. Thesocio-cultural, economic, and technological shifts that have led to the complexbarriers that are delaying physical activity promotion and participation, andit identifies strategies and tactics that may increase physical activityparticipation are current concerns in the field of physical activity andfitness. 

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