This transition took place approximately 10,000 -11,000 years ago. This was just after the great migration of humans had reached most of the far corners of the continents. The growing of crops would mean that people needed to stay in one place long enough to plant, tend, and then harvest. With staying in one place for a long period of a year, these early humans would not run into other humans as much so potentially less fighting. It would be worth the time to build some type of defense system, be it people as lookouts or structures.
More sophisticated carrying containers would need to be made to carry the harvested crops if the group was going to move after the growing season which is what the Native Americans did in the upper midwest. The Anishinabe would harvest maple syrup in the spring and carry it to the summer fishing and growing area where they dried fish, harvested beans, squash, and corn that was then carried to the fall camp where they harvested wild rice. This was then carried to the winter camp where they hunted game animals. They were always carrying food. As agriculture increased, storage shelters were built to hold the harvested crops thus making humans more stationary. Permanent structures were built thus the building trades were born. Grain storage units need to be rodent proof to prevent spoilage. Did they develop the first mouse trap? Was it a cat, 4,000-9,000 years ago? Dogs were already domesticated about 5000 years before agriculture was developed.
If harvests were good, this would have created more free-time during the rest of the year to develop customs and rituals. Let’s celebrate our traveling ancestors with a dance around the fire. Did humans feel safe enough in there new communities to talk around the fire at night not fearing attacks? Did language evolve because of agriculture? Populations would have expanded in communities with successful agriculture. The extra nutrients would allow more people to survive, thus providing more workers to do other things like domesticate chickens for eggs, about 7000 – 10,000 years ago. More sophisticated social structures could be developed as the community grew. Were our first civil engineers born? People need to stay busy so let’s develop jobs for them, how about a bridge over the stream or build a net to catch more fish. How about trade with other communities? These new communities would have been more susceptible to disease and famine if crops failed or spoiled.
Ergot on rye, not nice in large quantities. Maybe they got sick from the water so they drink wine or beer, 3,000 – 4,900 years ago. The shaman or medicine man becomes important, the first doctor, role specialization.