The objective of the study was to reveal parents and their children’s actions in food preparation for the family and to consider whether the food preparation by the children was relevance to their healthy living and eating patterns. The researchers used quantitative method in the study.
For the methods used, the researchers made use of the surveys and questionnaires. They gave out surveys and questionnaires for the adolescents to answer in school, and each parent completed the surveys by mails or smartphones. Information used in the research were from the questionnaires and surveys given out to the parents and adolescents. They conducted the study in 2010, from families eatings’ and activities among college students were utilized as a part of cross-sectional study. For the number of the participants, they have 1,875 respondents for mothers, 18 respondents for stepmothers, 977 respondents for fathers, 105 respondents for stepfathers, and 2,108 respondents for college students from different families that participated in the study. Article 2 The objective of this study was to know the different parental feeding styles to encourage the college students to have healthy living habits.
The researchers used quantitative method to gather information for this study. For the college students, they have 133 participants ars and their parents also participated in the study. The parents answered the questionnaire and the adolescents completed a 3-day food records. Confirmatory factor study recommended four different parental feeding styles. First, the parents can make use of inspirational words to motivate the adolescents to get use of healthy eating patterns.
Second, give verbal punishments to their children to indirectly control the intake of healthy foods. Lastly, the parents can a direct control for the access of foods for their children so that they can monitor the behavior and emotions of the child. There were no relevance between dietary and the verbal encouragement of having healthy eating behaviors, yet there were huge negative effects between verbal punishment and indirectly control of the intake of healthy foods. The use of food to monitor emotions and behaviors was positively related with e food consumption.
Article 3 The objective of the study was to examine how maternal practices in childhood, both general and feeding to be specific, reveals about the weight status, vegetables and fruits consumption of college students. The researchers used retrospective surveys to know the maternal behaviors and to evaluate about the dietary measures of the college student. For the participants, there were 424 college students participated in the study and 66% of the respondents were women.
Basically, the main outcome measures the weight, height, fruit and vegetable intakes, and the report of the students of their mothers’ general and feeding parenting behaviors during childhood. The researchers got to test and analyze how the maternal behaviors in childhood relate to college students’ fruits and vegetables intakes. They have proved that the psychological control of a mother during childhood was correlated with higher body index in the students, and the behavioral control was correlated with lower body index. The parent centered feeding behaviors correlate with low vegetables and fruits intakes, while the child centered feeding behaviors correlate with high vegetables and fruits intakes. It recommends that the use of behavioral and child centered feeding practices during childhood may or may not promote a child’s healthy weight status. Article 4 The objective of the study was to assess if the frequent exposure to foods in childhood is correlate with adulthood liking.
The encouragement and modeling during childhood certainly affect the food preferences or the current liking of a person. Food preferences during childhood and daily routines can impact adultery dietary patterns and weight. The researchers studied the different effects of obtained memories of early food experiences on current liking for those foods by 670 college students.
The result of the study showed that the obtained memories of frequent consumption of foods in childhood were greatly correlated to current liking for the majority of the foods, which include nutritious foods such as vegetables and fruits. Moreover, the restrictions or the forced consumption by the parents were not correlated with the current liking or food preference of the college students. Most of the respondents said that their eating practices during their childhoods were in a moderate agreement their parents. By making use of the retrospective surveys method, the researchers were able to determine a long term effects of exposure on current food habits. Constant exposure to foods during childhood could be one of the simplest and easiest ways for the parents to instill healthy eating habits in children. Article 5 The objective of this study was to evaluate the food habits and factors correlated among the college students. This is a cross sectional descriptive study.
For the participants, the researchers got 800 college students, 525 from urban government schools, 200 from rural government schools, and 75 from private international schools. For the collection of data, the researchers made a questionnaire to get the demographic data, sources of main meals, food preferences, and food frequencies of the participants. The result showed that most of the adolescents consumed homemade food for main meals and has an increase in breakfast consumption from different shops. Only 34% of the participants had consumed 5 or more portions of fruits and vegetables for a day. 43% of the participants had consumed fast food and 61% of the participants consumed sweets and the percentage for the consumption if sweets was a little bit higher than expected.
The frequency of fast food, sweets, soft drink consumption, increases when the adolescents received higher amount of pocket money. These unhealthy food habits are currently on the rise among college students and the amount of pocket money are greatly related to the number of times they go to fast food outlet. Article 6 The objective of the study was to know the impact of parental influence on eating behavior of adolescents. The researchers make used of the quantitative method to gather data. They gave out surveys to the adolescents and their parents to answer.
The researchers introduced the eating behaviors advances over years as biological and behavioral procedures that were conducted toward meeting the requirements for health and growth. For the past decades of human history, food shortages have become a major threat to survival, and the eating behaviors of human beings and child feeding practices have developed in response to this threat. Since infants are born into different families with various cultures and cuisines, they naturally form a set of eating pattern that allows them to learn on how to accept the foods that were made for them. During the times of food shortages in the past, the standard of livings and the resources for a family are constant, which were often low in energy, and nutrients.
In contrast, the eating habits of children in non- third world countries are spread under unknown conditions of dietary abundance, where inexpensive, ready to eat foods are readily available. In this study, the researchers described the different important factors to develop the children’s food preference and eating behaviors during their first years of lives, and in order to provide knowledge on how growing up in current conditions of dietary abundance can promote the patterns of food which will contribute to weight gain or weight loss Article 7 The objective of the study was to presents the affiliation between college freshmen’s eating practices and their knowledges about the parenting style. The main focus the study was about the unhealthy eating contributes to state of minds of the adolescents and college students. It has been recommended that the increase in freedom of college students had a negative effect in their eating behaviors.
The study have proven that the particular parenting styles may decrease the chances of engaging in poor eating practices. The researchers used an internet based survey to gather data. They have 264 college freshmen between the ages of 18-20 years from a large southeastern university. For the data analysis, they used the bivariate statistics along with multiple regression analysis.
The result showed that the parenting style anticipates healthy eating habit during early adolescence, however it did not anticipates any healthy eating habit in the sample of college freshmen, and it was less than 1% of the variance in eating practices. Nevertheless, some participants suggested that some students believed that parents have influenced their current eating behaviors. Article 8 The objective of the study was to evaluate the perceptions of adolescents about the factors that influence their food choices and eating behaviors. The data were gathered in a focus group discussions.
The participants include 141 adolescents from urban schools, who also participated in 21 focus groups. The data were analyzed using qualitative research method. The result showed that factors recognized as influencing food choices include hunger, the cravings for food, and the time considerations of adolescents and parents, food availability, convenience of food, parental influence on eating behaviors, and benefits of foods. The major hindrance for the college students on eating more fruits, vegetables, and dairy products includes a lack of sense of urgency about the personal health and taste of preferences for other foods. For the recommendations, the study showed that to help the college students to eat more and have a healthy diet include making healthy food taste and look better. To make the healthy food more available and convenient to them, and to instill good eating habits at an early age.