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The influence of the Coach-Athlete
relationship on coaching efficacy: Investigated the relationship between
coaches’ perceptions of their relationship with athlete to coach efficacy.

Method: participants were 632 head coaches
of men’s and women’s teams at Division I, II, and III universities from the US in
nine different sports; soccer, basketball, lacrosse, ice hockey, volleyball swimming/diving,
tennis, track and field/cross country. Participants completed an electronic
survey after emails were collected from 129 Division I schools, 79 Division II
Schools and 97 Division III Schools. Total number of emails to coaches was 2525

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connection between coach-athlete relationship and coach efficacy was found
which explains a significant amount of variance in coach efficacy. Meaning that
coach’s perception of their relationship with their athlete is related to their
coach efficacy. Showed a 32% variance between the coach-athlete relationship
and coach-efficacy.

these results indicate that the coach-athlete relationship is very important in
not only motivation efficacy. But also game strategy, technique, and character
building efficacy. This indicates that there is a strong importance to the
coach-athlete relationship and should be considered in modern day coaching
methods and that coach-athlete relationship is deeply embedded to coach
efficacy. In particular, the canonical correlation showed that all subscales of
the coach-athlete relationship being; direct closeness, commitment and
complimentarity and meta-closseness, commitment and complimentarity were all positively
related to coach-efficacy subscales; game strategy efficacy, motivation
efficacy, technique efficacy, and character building efficacy.

study shows coach-athlete relationship is highly related to coach efficacy as
significant relationship was found between all subscales of coach efficacy and
coach-athlete relationship. Historically self-efficacy has been a predominant
psychological factor in sport performance. Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s
ability on how well they can execute behaviours (e.g. sport performance) needed
to achieve a certain outcome (e.g. succeeding in the sport). The theory of
Self-efficacy as proposed by Bandura 1974, suggests that people will generally
only attempt an action when they believe it can be accomplished, and will not
attempt a task if they believe they will fail. Bandura’s theory introduces
the idea that perception of efficacy is influenced by four factors; mastery
experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and somatic and emotional
stateThere are two different measures of well-being which are
known as subjective well-being (SWB) and psychological well-being (PWB). SWB
can be described as the experience of pleasure and satisfaction to one’s life
and can be closely associated to happiness being the primary goal to an
individual’s well-being (Diener, 1984, 1994). On the contrary, PWB can be
described as the experience of personal growth, purpose in life, self-acceptance,
positive relations, autonomy and mastery. Also, known as “Ryff’s six” domains
of PSW (Ryff & Singer, 1998). For the purpose of this article, both SWB and
PWS will be addressed to cover a broader understanding of well-being in sport.
With emphasis on life-satisfaction / happiness(SWB), self-acceptance, personal
growth and mastery experience (PWB).Ashley Marie Cocker,
2011: to investigate the influence of coach on disorder eating disorders with
relations to coach-athlete relationship.  248 female participant female athletes and
dancers from four universities were asked to complete a questionnaire to
measure weight pressure from their coach, the coach-athlete relationship, and
disordered eating behaviours.

Results: 13.30% of the
participants’ results came back for disordered eating behaviours, and 2%
reported having been diagnosed in the past. (limitation: 25% of the athletes
who reported having an inmate with an eating disorder indicated that many had
underreported in the study.) 13% of these eating behaviours were explained from
perceived weight-related coach pressure and coach-athlete relationship.

Findings: from mediational
analysis, the results can suggest that the coach-athlete relationship showed to
be mediating variable of disordered eating behaviours to some extent.

Conclusion: the study demonstrates
that contribution of coaches lead to 13% disordered eating behaviours and
suggests the strength of this dynamic partnership and be crucial the short and
long term health of the collegiate participants but also to their overall
psychological well-being particularly in the subset of their self-acceptance
and subjective well-being for satisfaction in their own life.Child abuse study Gervis, M and Dunn, N 2004:
investigated emotional abuse of elite youth athletes by their coaches in the
UK. Participants were 12 former elite youth athletes from various sports, who
competed at an international level for their respective age groups (M=4, F=8).
Football (N=3), gymnastics (N=4), diving (N=2), hockey, netball and track and
field athletics (N=1 each). Participants were identified as elite athletes
between the ages of 8-16yrs (M=13.1yr, SD=2.4yr) and had competitive careers
ranging between 6-10yrs.

Method: an
interview process using a retrospective analysis was used on the participants
as the mean age at the time of the interview was 22.9yr, SD = 0.9yr. participants
were asked to reflect on experiences from about 10years ago in a
semi-structured interview process. Data was collected with response-coding
techniques. Abusive behaviours were categorised into eight headings;
belittling, humiliating, shouting, scapegoating, rejecting, isolating,
threatening and ignoring

the results showed that all participants (N=12) reported to have experienced
belittling and shouting by their coach. Nine athletes reported frequent
humiliation, nine reported frequent threatening behaviour, seven reported
scapegoating, six reported rejection or being ignored and four reported being
isolated all during the period when they were elite youth athletes. It was also
reported that the behaviour of their coaches changed when they were identified
as elite athletes to become more negative. As result, participants reported to
have felt feeling stupid, worthless, less confident, depressed, upset, angry,
fearful and humiliated.

The results of Gervis, M and Dunn, N 2004
showed that the behaviour of some coaches is a threat to the PWB of elite youth
athletes and provides evidence about how influential a coach’s behaviour can be
on their athlete.

Both Gervis, M and Dunn, N 2004 and ……. Demonstrate the extent to which adolescent athletes
listen and absorb the words and behaviours of their coaches. The words of coaches
are indirectly using verbal persuasion from the self-efficacy principles. As seen
in Gervis, M and Dunn, N, the study emphasised that the coaches behaviours was
a factor for triggering feelings of humiliation, stupidity, and depression in
elite youth athletes. The development of these abuses can be explained by vicarious
experiences. Adolescence is a vulnerable and maturing state during their life
time and role models such as coach must be wary of the behaviour that they are
giving across to their athletes. Providing a negative mastery environment for
them to thrive in can have detrimental effects for the SWB and PWS of adolescents.
These studies not only reinforce the idea of coaches as indicators for poor
well-being, but it also suggests the depth of a coach-athlete relationship.

Not only is this suggesting the
PWB of the adolescent athletes being hindered, but rather reinforces the term
of ‘coach-athlete relations’ as strong indicators to a childs well-being. due
to coaches having so much influence on the adolescent’s feeling and thus
well-being, as shown in studies discussed previously, . , build either a
positive or negative mastery environmentSelf-efficacy has been found to positively correlate to
goals and performance (Justin M. Weinhardt 2013). The antecedents of
self-efficacy; performance accomplishments, (verbal) persuasion, vicarious
experience, and physiological state seem to be vital components within goal
setting where goals mediated the relationship between performance and
self-efficacy. Goal-setting and performance of young adolescents correlated to
well-being. In a study by
Steca P etal. (…), they aimed to analyse whether progress and value of
short-term goals would affect the level and changes of subjective well-being.
409 participants were gathered aged between 19-21, (186 males, 223 females) and
asked to report their subjective well-being and two most important goals. The
study was a three-wave longitudinal study with one month intervals. Within each
interval the participants rated their progress and value of their goals, and
then their subjective well-being.

Using a
latent difference score model, their results revealed that participant with
increase in goal progress showed increase for subjective well-being. whilst,
goal value increases should a negative affect on subjective well-being. these
findings suggest that goal progress appears to play a key role within
subjective well-being, thus modern day coaching methods should consider
implementing goal-setting programmes that aim to foster positive goal pursuits.

It can be suggested that there is an indirect correlation
between self-efficacy antecedents and well-being Aim: to investigate the influence of general
self-efficacy perceived by adolesscents with chronic conditions and paretns on
the quality of life in a cross-sectional studyMethod: 293 participants gathered. 92/293(31%)
were adolecents, 121/293 (41%) were parents. Participants completed an online
questionnaire. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (N=229), juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
(N=132), cystic fibrosis(N=24), kidney conditions (15), and neuromuscular disorders
(N=38) and parents were surveyed using the Dutch version of the 10-item general
self-efficacy scale and DISABKIDS condition-generic module(Peterson et al.
2005) to measure quality of life. the DISABKIDS questionnaire also asked participants
to provide information on background information including; age, gender,
educational level, type of chronic conditions and level of functioning. Self-perceived
and parents’ perceived general self-efficacy of adolescents was compared using
paired t-tests. Quality of life and general self-efficacy was of adolescents
was compared using analysis of variance. Results: showed that general
self-efficacy was highest among adolescents with cystic fibrosis however was
not significantly more than the mean result and lowest among urological
conditons. Social quality of life was lowest among those with neuromuscular
disorders (significantly lower than overall mean for social quality of life
score which was p?0.001). Analyse also showed that adolescents perceived
general self-efficacy was significantly related to emotional, physical and
social quality of life (all a p ? 0.001). Parents’
perception of adolescents general self-efficacy was higher than adolescents at
(p?0.05). general-self efficacy perceived by both parents
and adolescents was related to physical, emotional and social quality of life. Findings: Physical and emotional quality
of life did not differ across these chronic conditions suggesting that self-efficacy
of all adolescent participants in the study experienced similar emotional and
physical quality of life with all participants reporting low quality of life in
these areas. Also found that those experiencing low
social quality of life(not emotional or physical) resulted in the lowest
self-efficacy which suggest that social quality of life has the largest impact
for self-efficacy!AC1  This highlights the importance
for social interactions between parent, peers and particularly coaches
relations with adolescents. Conclusion: adolescents with chronic conditions
perceived their self-efficacy as low due to lack of support resulting in lower
emotional, social, physical outcomes in quality of life – ‘quality of life’ is
part of PWB. Therefore, greater general self-efficacy as perceived by
adolescent with chronic conditions is significantly related to their physical,
social and emotional quality of life. Limitations: whilst is showed general
self-efficacy of adolescents with chronic conditions had an important effect on
quality of life outcomes, the study did not investigate whether interventions
aiming to enhance general self-efficacy actually improved quality of life. Also
doesn’t suggest why there is such a big difference between emotional and social
quality of life.  Sigal Eden et al. 2014: bully
versus victim on the internet; the correlation with emotional-social
characteristics. Aim: to
investigate the correlation between the bully and victim in cyberbullying, and
the emotional-social aspects/social support, sense of loneliness, and sense of
self-efficacy that develop risk and protective factors among children and youth
in Israel. Method:
1094 elementary school participants. Participants were to complete four
questionnaires addressing cyber-bullying and the social and emotional aspects;
social support, loneliness, self-efficacy and personal well-being. Findings:
the less social support the students had, the lower the sense of self-efficacy,
the lonelier they felt, and the more the experiences a lower sense of
well-being. therefore, greater likelihood to participate in cyberbullying. High
correlation found between frequency of harassment to social support and
self-efficacy. Conclusion:
those who suffer from cyberbullying sense less social support, self-efficacy
and lower well-being. shows lower self-efficacy also resulted in lower
well-being. doesn’t suggest that one causes the other but it is notable that
when self-efficacy is low, coincidently well-being is also lower. This suggests
the social support may be required in coaching to increase self-efficacy and
motivation to support well-being of adolescents. Limitations:
sampling is limited as only examined adolescents in school, doesn’t include adolescent
that dropped out of school. Participants were only Israel, cannot attribute
findings to all youth. Analysis: study demonstrates bullying as a factor for
lowering sense of well-being. Coaches can also be a form of bullying as briefly
mentioned in Gervis, M and Dunn, N 2004 where
its results also state that elite youth athletes suffered from abuse from their
coaches.   Generalised
Slef-efficacy and well-being in Adolescents with high vs low Scholastic
Self-efficacyAim: to investigate the relationship between
gerenralised self-efficacy and psychological well-being in highly vs lowly
efficient Italian adolescentsMethod: sample was 136 adolescents, 64
boy and 72 girls aged between 14-18years from three public Secondary School in
Catania, Italy. Participants were divided into two subgroups in relation to the
perceived self-efficacy in scholastic performance (76 highly efficient
adolescents vs. 60 lowly efficient adolescents). The generalised self-efficacy
scale (Sibilia, Schwarzer, & Jerusalem, 1995) and Psychological well-being
scale (Ryff & Keyes, 1995) was used. Results: results partially confirmed a positive
relationship between GSES and PWB (r(136)=38, p<0.001). particularly for environmental mastery(r(136)=42, p<0.001), personal growth (r(136)=29, p<0.001) and self-acceptance(r(136)=27, p<0.001).  Conclusion: These findings showed that the more the adolescents perceived themselves as highly efficient in coping with daily hassles, the more they experienced sense of mastery and competence in managing their environment, realise their own potential, and able to accept different aspects of self-image.  Vandana Gupta 2012: Self-concept and well-being: an empirical analysisAim: to investigate assocaition in self-efficacy and well-being; including mental and physical health. Method: sample of 104 scholar students (52 male and 52 females) from Banaras Hindu University between 25-30 completed a questionnaire using psychometric standardised measures of General Self-efficacy, sense of control, general health and somatic health. Results: all results were one tailed tests. Sself-efficacy was found to be positively associated with mental (r=-.189, p<.05) and physical health (r=-.281, p<.01) with a positive relationship between mental and physical health (r=310, p(one tail) <.001). Found that self-efficacy accounted for 3.6% variance in mental health scores and 7.9% for physical health scores. Showing that self-efficacy is an important predictor for mental and physical health, and furthermore, self-efficacy is an important determinant for well-being Conclusion: AC2  Vandana Gupta 2012, emphasises the idea that teachers "should endeavour to enhance self-efficacy beliefs among their students". Limitations: Larger sample size needed to generalise findings.  AC1This good, shows that 'social quality of life' is the biggest indicator for self-efficacy. Therefore, self-efficacy principles such as verbal persuasion will has a large impact for PWB particularly the subset of 'quality of life'  AC2Can use these findings for you intro stuff where you state that how self-efficacy and well-being link together. Other studies i.e Tong, & Song, 2004 also found that people with strong sense of general self-efficacy reported higher levels of subjective well-being.

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