Site Loader
Rock Street, San Francisco

 The Battles of the Persian War had a significant impact in shaping Greece as an independent strong empire.  Prior to this war, each city-state in Greece operated as its own polis.  Athens, Sparta, Erteria, and many others had their own form of government, wars, education, and culture.  They were competitive in nature.  Up to this point, they did not have a reason to band together and take pride as an entire united nation.  The battles of the Persian War gave them the reason to do so.The Persian War occurred in the classical times during 499 BC and ended in 449 BC.  The Persian Empire was large in geography and in population, there were approximately 49.4 million people in the empire during this period.  Because Persia was bigger than Greece, it makes the battles of the war much more interesting and impressive. King Darius called for all city-states in Greece to surrender to his rule in 490 BC. Athens, Sparta, and many other city-states refused to do so which sparked Persia’s fury and launched the war.   The Ionian  Revolt took place when the Ionian cities from Asia Minor tried to overthrow their own Persian leaders. Darius I used the revolt as motivation for revenge. The Battle of Marathon was fought between the Athenians and the Persians.  The Ionian Revolt marked the beginning of the Persian Wars.  King Darius was mad that the Athenians and Eretrians allied with the Ionians and revolted against him.  The Athenians and Etretrians retreated back to Greece but not before they burned Sardis down. In order to get revenge, King Darius plotted to take over Greece.  The Persian army traveled across to Euboea, conquered this land, then regrouped. After the Persian army regrouped, they conqured Eretria. They traveled around by boat  to get to Attica to do the same thing they did to Euboea and Eretria. So when the Persians landed,  the Athenians set up a border luring them to go into a narrow space of marsh and rocky mountains.  When the Persians went in the narrow passage, they realized it was a trap.  By then, it was too late and they were slaughtered in large groups and only a small group of Persians made it out. The Persian invasion of Greece was resumed by King Xerxes, the son of King Darius, in the Battle of Thermopylae which occurred ten years after the defeat at Marathon. The Persian army consisted of twenty thousand to thirty thousand soldiers and the Greeks had five thousand to seven thousand soldiers.   This battle marked the first time in the Persian wars where Spartans agreed to help in the resistance. The people of Greece in the different city-states were hesitant to send men to fight.  This is a sign of the fact that Greece was not yet a strong united nation.  Spartans did not want to send their men that far north to fight.  There were about three hundred Spartans fighting in the Battle of Thermopylae. The Persians sent waves of ten thousand people first only to get shut down. Next, a group of Persians reroute around the pass at Thermopylae.  This ultimately is a defeat for Greece as the Persians march onto Salamis and Plataea.  In the Battle of Salamis, the Greek fleet defeated a much larger Persian naval force. The Persians had approximately eight hundred galleys and the Greeks had approximately 370 triremes. When the Greek King Themistocles lured the Persian fleet into the Strait of Salamis, it was hard for their boats to maneuver. When the Greeks saw the right time to attck, they struck hard and fast.  They ended up sinking about 300 Persian vessels and 40 of their own. The rest of the Persians were scattered. King Xerxes had to postpone his planned land offensives for one year. It was a delay that gave the Greek city-states time to unite and regroup themselves. The Battle of Salamis was the first great battle recorded in history.    The Persians fought with a much smaller army in the Battle of Plataea because King Xerxes had returned to Persia with much of the army.  Spartans and Athenians were in a game of chase with the Persians. When the Persians attack at Plataea, the Greeks do as well and win. The Persian cavalry successfully raided Greek supply routes and blocked the water supply. The Greeks decided to make a night move into a new position. When dawn broke, the Greeks were strung out and disorganized. The Persians saw this as an opportunity to strike and took it. But their well-armored, hoplite infantry gained the upper hand. The Persian king was killed and thousands of Persians were slaughtered. Then the leaderless Persians broke and fled. After this war, the Persians leave but there is no official treaty. Greece doesn’t know the war is over so they go into defense mode. There were many years of fighting between the Greeks and Persians but the Persians never invaded the Greeks again. The Delian league was an alliance of Greek city-states led by Athens.  This was a defensive move to possible revenge attacks by Persia because of the past losses of Marathon, Salamis, and Platea. But soon enough Persia and Athens make peace and the Ionian states turn to Athens. Athens soon becomes an empire with more money and other states are intimidated by this so they ally with Sparta to take over Athens just to start the Peloponnesian war.Greece became a strong independent empire from enduring and joining forces during the Persian Wars. Even though they were a small country at the time, the Battle of Marathon was a huge win for them because it gave them confidence that a small country could beat a big and more advanced country. Due to the fact that Greece had easy access to water, mountainous lands and countless scattered islands, geography played a big role in protecting the Greek civilizations from the Persian empire.  Although the strong empire of Greece seemed to last for a short period leading up to the Peloponnesian war, the Battles of the Persian War played a pivotal role in creating a sense of unity within Greece.  Works CitedPBS, Public Broadcasting Service,”Persian Wars.” Ancient History Encyclopedia,, Donald. “Battle of Plataea.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 23 Mar. 2017,, Donald. “Battle of Thermopylae.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 20 Apr. 2017, Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Battle of Salamis.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 21 Dec. 2015, Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Ionian Revolt.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 13 Apr. 2017,

Post Author: admin


I'm Eric!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out