The purpose of this proposal has been toascertain whether working mothers in Pakistan are suffering from anxiety andlower life satisfaction as compared to women working without the responsibilityof motherhood.
Being part of a collectivist culture, mothers who willingly orunwillingly are required to dually handle the responsibilities of motherhood,home as well as their work have it relatively harder compared to othernon-parent working women. They are generally overlooked for the struggles theyexperience. In spite of the fact that society has at long last acknowledged andeven began to accept mothers who earn, consistent weights of keeping upemployment and bringing up kids influence them and also their relationships.ConclusionThe study only covers the well developedareas and cities of the country. Since much of the population is living belowpoverty line and lacks literacy, they would not be able to respond to thequestionnaires properly. The sample chosen involves females coming from aneducated and traditional background.
It could not facilitate uneducated mothersthat are often forced to work outside and take drastic measures to make endsmeet such as those women working as rickshaw drivers and house maids. Sincethey have to deal with poverty as well, their anxiety level and lifesatisfaction scale could radically differ from those mother selected in thisstudy. Moreover, this study does not make a comparison of working mothers withnon-working mothers so it does not determine whether the anxiety and lifesatisfaction among these females is different in comparison. It also does notstate whether the anxiety and life satisfaction have a direct or indirectrelationship in this context.LimitationsAfter the research is approved, 10% of thesample will be chosen and a short study will be conducted on them first this isto see how feasible the study design, instruments as well as the procedure ofthe research is. Pilot StudyOn the other hand, responses on the SWLS areanalyzed by the calculation of the score received on each question and addingit. The questions have likert styled 7-point response scale and scores thatrange from 5 to 35. A score of five to nine shows extreme dissatisfaction andscores of thirty one to thirty five show extreme satisfaction.
The SWLS tool was researched to have greatinternal consistency as well as high test-retest correlation.The statistical analysis of the researchwould be done through t-tests and their results would be computed using SPSS 22.State anxiety and trait anxiety both have 20 questions each on the STAIquestionnaire that are different and scored respectively. It has a minimumscore of 20 and a maximum of 80 and every question has a significance of 4point each. The scores obtained after summing up the points from everyquestions show whether the anxiety range in low, moderate or severe. There arequestions that determine whether the respondent lacks anxiety or not. Questionssuch as ‘I feel satisfied show that anxiety is missing whereas, statements suchas ‘I feel indecisive’ show if there is a possibility of anxiety being present.
AnalysisRealizing ethical considerations isimperative when carrying out research (Bell & Bryman, 2007). This researchwould prioritize the protection, dignity, consent, privacy, confidentiality andanonymity of its participants and ensure that it is carried out withtransparency and integrity while avoiding any sort of misleading information ordeception.EthicalconsiderationsThe work and occupations will be selected atrandom and the sample participants will be chosen through convenience sampling.
Questionnaires will be handed to the participants and their results would becomputed. 240 participants would be taken as the research participants fromthree various classifications of work including educational institutes,corporations and individuals working from home. SWLS would be administered tocheck the level of life satisfaction among working mothers and non-parentworking women and STAI would be used to assess their anxiety level.
In order toavoid any hurdle in data collection, permission letter would be received fromthe Head of the Departments and it would be shown to the authorities of theinstitutions so that the process of data collection can be carried outsmoothly. Written consent would be given to the participants and they would begiven brief description about the purpose of the data collection. They will beassured that the data collected from them will only be used for researchpurpose and will be kept confidential.ProcedureHowever, the tool does not measure particularlife aspects and the satisfaction individuals relate to them for instance theirincome or family. Giving values to these aspects of life have been critiquedbecause quantifying these life domains is not appropriate. The numbersindicated and the scores receive from the statements have been researched to bevalid with other tools and wellbeing assessment (Pavot & Deiner 1993).
SWLShas indicated adequate substance as a hypothetically effective tool to perceivevariation in life satisfaction throughout clinical mediation programs. Moreover,the tool has proven validity from psychopathology instruments. The tool is endorsedas an accompaniment to measures that emphasis on emotional wellbeing since it measuresthe conscious of an individual and the evaluative judgment of their life byusing personal criteria set by the individual (Pavot & Deiner 1993).The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) wascreated by Ed Diener and his contemporaries in 1984 in order to measure lifesatisfaction. Life satisfaction is one factor in the more general construct ofsubjective wellbeing. Theory and research from field outside of rehabilitationhave suggested that subjective wellbeing has at least three components,positive affective appraisal, negative affective appraisal and lifesatisfaction.
The SWLS has five statements that inquire about the overallassessment of a respondent and their lives. Generally the cognitive appraisalinvolved in measuring life satisfaction is believed to require a comparison byindividuals between the current status of their lives and self-definedexpectations regarding what they would like their lives to be. This comparisonmay be in relation to a self-defined ideal or the expectations of other people.State-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) will beapplied as well as life scale to assess the anxiety and life satisfaction ofworking mothers. The STAI determines the presence of anxiety by measuring boththe state and trait anxiety of a person.
The tool covers distinct self-reportscales to determine the two different concepts of anxiety that is state anxiety(A-State) and trait anxiety (A-Trait). State anxiety is described as anunlikable arousal of emotions when facing intimidating pressures or threats.The cognitive consideration of threat is a condition necessary for the experiencingthis sensation. Trait anxiety reveals the presence of unchanging differences inindividuals when they tend to retort with state anxiety on the onset of athreatening situation (Lazarus, 1991). The STAI A-Trait scale consists of 20statements that inquire the general state of feelings an individual has,whereas the A-State scale has 20 statements that inquire what the individual isfeeling at the particular moment.
The STAI, itself, assesses anxiety but alsocan be used to make discrimination when wondering whether a patient isexperiencing anxiety or depression. Results show that the STAI is a highlyreliable measure and that it has the ability to discriminate between high- andlow-stress situations (Metzger, 1976).InstrumentsThe sample size would be limited to 16participants; 8 working mothers and 8 non-parent working women chosen from fivemajor cities of Pakistan mentioned which would make it a total of 48participants from each chosen city and 240 in total. Convenience samplingmethod would be employed to avoid bias and sustain the validity of theresearch. SampleSize and MethodSince the research is based in Pakistan sothe population selected would be the working mothers found in different workplaces such educational institutes, corporations and those women working fromhome in the country. The sample would be selected from major cities of Pakistanof each province in order to avoid cultural discrepancies and make the resultsmore generalizable.
A total of five cities would be selected; Karachi, Lahore,Islamabad, Peshawar and Quetta. The working mothers and non-parent working womento be selected from work places would be chosen from each hierarchical levelstarting from junior teacher to senior manager or director. Same goes for thoseselected from corporations. Their occupation will range from that of areceptionist to senior executive. Mothers and women in general working fromhome usually do online jobs or have their own online business that ranges fromselling baked goods, arts and crafts or tailoring. The research will make surethat an appropriate number of occupations are covered from each city.
Population and Sample This study will incorporate survey method tocollect data using specially designed questionnaires and measuring scales foranxiety and life satisfaction.Research designMethodologyLife satisfaction can be referred to asthe contentment attained from the life circumstances a person is occupied with(Akbari, 2012). One of the factors involved in accomplishing life satisfactionfor a working mother could be her capability of steadily managing her dualroles as an employer and amother.Anxietycan be regarded as an ordinary response to a stressful stimulus. It is an uncanny feeling of concern thatcould cause an individual to have a frenzied state of mind (Davison, 2008).
Beingin an anxious mental and emotional state could prevent a working mother fromperforming to her full potential. The presence of anxiety could prevent onefrom achieving life satisfaction. Definitions of Variables2. Lifesatisfaction is significantly lower in working mothers compared to non-parentworking women.1. Anxiety issignificantly more in working mothers compared to non-parent working women. HypothesisEva Berger (2012) concluded that workingmothers in Germany in family? associated non?involvement and mothers workingpart?time are not as much content than mothers working full?time.
In contrastto working mothers, working fathers state less disputes in balancing work andlife as well as lesser personal stress, and more marital, life and familysatisfaction. Findings also indicate that life satisfaction is influenced bythe blend of salaried work time and voluntary everyday responsibilities. Ingeneral, being in charge of the majority of housekeeping decreases lifesatisfaction for women employed full-time (Alvarez & Miles-Touya, 2015). Workingmothers who are single have been recorded to have considerably lesser lifesatisfaction and contentment and higher financial stress compared to mothers ina relationship (Bull & Mittelmark, 2009). However, being a mother while employedbestows upon a woman the duty of child rearing. This practice also alters theway in which she is recognized in society and at her place of work. It requiresher to take additional leave options more than there are available which canput her job surety in a vulnerable position (Poduval & Poduval, 2009).
Althoughmaintaining equilibrium between family commitments and work can be a major causeof stress for both the working father and mother, working mothers in jobpositions that are conventionally male oriented encounter added anxiety as aresult of unsubstantiated expectations about their aptitude as employees. Thesenotions are embedded deep in stereotypes related to gender (Okimoto , 2012). Important collective and individual modifications are essentialto deal with such conditions. Working mothers, particularly those who have thegood providence to be competent enough to manage their work as well as theirkids, are able to relish the motivation that comes from having a career or livelihood.They cultivate the aptitude of nurturing a valuable member of the society moreoversimultaneously being able to achieve self-reliance and financial autonomy.Being employed complements the wholeness of being a woman together with hermotherhood (Poduval & Poduval, 2009).
According to a research conducted byEmmanuel Temitope (2015) in Nigeria, all working mothers go through one or theother type of psychological disturbance varying from their degree of lifesatisfaction, anxiety and stress, irrespective of how old they are. Incontradiction to the circumstances of the conclusions drawn in the research, itwas established that stress develops as a result of the amount of work workingmother have to deal with while life satisfaction and anxiety fluctuate from personto person irrespective of their position. To put it briefly, perceived stressand life satisfaction have an important correlation among working mothers whereasanxiety and life satisfaction has a considerably adverse correlation.
Moreover,stress makes a noteworthy and leading effect on life satisfaction of workingmothers besides anxiety which also makes an important and key impact on lifesatisfaction in Ekiti State (Temitope, 2015). Some research suggests that working canencourage and promote self-fulfillment in women which leads to higher lifesatisfaction. It indicates that the low and high life satisfaction depends uponthe level of anxiety; the working women with low level of anxiety are higher onlife satisfaction contrary to the non-working women (Kaur, Panwar, Thind , 2012). The conclusions drawn from the research point out that thosewomen who are working and married, have less anxiety and more life satisfactionas compared to the non-working married women. They seem to identify their lifeas inspiring and stable. They feel contented in the state of life they are in(Kaur, Panwar, Thind & Farooqi, 2012).
Findings from a research carried outby Arshad, Gul and Mehmood (2015) indicate that there was significantdifference between working and nonworking women regarding their positivewellbeing.Literature ReviewThis paper aims to highlight whether the above mentionedresponsibilities influence the lifestyle and mental wellbeing of workingmothers in Pakistan in the form of anxiety and deteriorating life satisfaction.The research will include all sorts of working mothers whether they are thesole breadwinners of their family or not. In collectivist cultures, women haveit relatively harder since their partners and/or extended families oftenappreciate their working only if their house management skills are up to themark. They are often underappreciated for the struggles they encounter.Although society has finally accepted and even started to appreciate and demandfemale assistance in the bread winner role, constant pressures of maintainingjob and raising children affects them as well as their relationships (Temitope,2015).Rationale/ ObjectiveIn recent times, many societies around the world haveseen an upsurge in the number of working mothers.
Some 50 decades ago from now,having mothers as the breadwinners of the household was uncommon (Glynn, 2014).However, it has gradually become commonplace. Mothers are no longer confined tohousehold tasks, child rearing and procreation.
A considerable number of womenengage in housekeeping, family nurturing as well as being a full-time orpart-time employee. This is more or less likely to affect their mentalwellbeing (Adhikari, 2012). Working mothers are quite realistically one of themost contributing members of society as they manage not only their work lifebut also their home where they have the task of raising the future of tomorrow.Being able to pursue higher education, some working mothers have taken up top hierarchicalroles in several economic sectors. Performing dual roles as the breadwinner aswell as a nurturer can be very demanding.
They are expected to perform well attheir jobs as well as maintain their family (Temitope, 2015). Anxiety and LifeSatisfaction among Working Mothers The society of Pakistan has long beenone where the role of women has been credited and portrayed essentially as thatof a nurturer and home maker. However, being a developing nation it has alsobore women working dual roles of a mother as well as a breadwinner for thefamily in a fundamentally conservative and misogynist society. These societaltraits are bound to create challenges and inconvenience to those working women whowillingly or unwillingly are challenging the norms by going out and working. Itcan come down in the form of criticism from family, managing dilemmas or otherissues that can lead to anxiety in a person.
This study aims to scrutinizewhether working mothers in Pakistan are struggling with anxiety and to see ifthey are low on life satisfaction using the State-trait anxiety inventory(STAI) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). The sample would be chosen fromvarious vocational areas including educational institutes, corporations andmothers working from home from major cities of Pakistan to cover differentaspects of work life of mothers.Abstract Table of Contents Rationale/ Objective.
4 Literature Review.. 4 Hypothesis. 6 Definitions of Variables. 7 Methodology. 7 Research design. 7 Population and Sample. 7 Instruments.
8 Procedure. 10 Ethical considerations. 10 Analysis. 10 Pilot Study.
11 Limitations. 11 Conclusion. 12 Forman ChristianCollege UniversitySubmission date:13-10-17Instructor: AyeshaAteeqPSYCH 30519-11005Mahnoor Ijaz