The beginning of western philosophical tradition began in ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE. This is known as the greek philosophy. The first philosophers were called the Pre-socratics.
The Presocratics was a philosophy that came before Socrates. The Presocratics were Greek thinkers from the 5th and 6th century BCE, they introduced a new way of looking at the world and the place of human beings in it. The presocratics were also known as the “Naturalists” and by extension “Materialists”. Thales, a greek philosopher. Also known as the father of science in western philosophy, who produces the first scientific grand unified theory of everything to be water. Philosophy is generally thought to begin with the Pre- Socratics. The major reason why is because of Thales of Miletus.
The first group of thinkers came to be in the 5th-6th century. These thinkers were known as the Pre-Socratics. The Pre-Socratics were mostly from the eastern and western of the greek world. The reason why they are known as the Pre- Socrates is because they predated the philosopher of the greek golden age who is Socrates. The Pre-Socratics used Greek mythology, rational thinking, and all the elements of nature to come up with their theories. The Pre-Socratics were also known as “Naturalists”. Naturalists are a group of people who can explain everything from nature by observing nature itself.
Naturalism is the idea or belief that only natural laws and forces operate in the world. The belief that naturalists have is that only natural laws and forces operate in the world. In other words, you can say this means that naturalists only believe in what they see physically.
Naturalists believe that nature itself and everything that it carries with itself explains all the existence inside it including human beings and human nature. So, for them everything has a physical or natural explanation and it has all to do with material matter. One thing that the Pre-Socratics and Naturalists both have in common is that they both studied the elements of nature to come up with their ideas or theories.
By extension, naturalism can be equated with “Materialists”. Materialists are people who believe that matter is the fundamental substance in nature. Also that all the things in the world including mental aspects and consciousness, are the results of material interactions. So basically everything that occurs in the universe is through matter and material interactions. Naturalists and Materialists both belong to the class of ontology. Ontology is branch of metaphysics dealing with the philosophical study of the nature of being. Thales, the first and the father of western philosophy.
Thales was born in the city of Miletus (now turkey) in Ionia around 685 BCE. Thales was the first western greek philosopher, scientist and mathematician. He was a very well known figure in his time.
The reason why is because of his theoretical achievements he made. One achievement he made was that he predicted the solar eclipse of may 28, 585 BC, he was the first man to do that. Thales believed in two things, the first one is that all things have a source, and the second that the source of everything is one. So then thales produced his first scientific grand unified theory of everything.
Thales theory was that the source of everything is water. According to Thales, water is the source of everything. Thales is basically saying that there is one single substance out of which everything else came from, which to him was water. Thales says that the world comes from water and shall return to water. To him, water is the substance from which the entire cosmos emerged and perhaps also to which it will return. He only believes in one thing which is water. Therefore, we can see that thales refers to unity, monism, and reductionism; this means that “the all is one”, there is an underlying unity in the apparent diversity of things and that there is only one kind of reality, and that is water. The unity for thales is the water because water is the metaphysic concept that thales is trying to explain.
The one and only principle he is trying to inform about is water. We can also refer to essentialism, naturalism, immanence; the all contains within itself its driving force; it changes are effects of internal changes, we can see that it is true because water contains its driving force within itself and that its changes are effects of internal causes. Essentialism is when the properties of object are essential to themselves like water. Naturalism is the idea when only natural laws and forces operate in the world, which for thales the natural law is water. Immanence meaning existing remains within, which is also water for Thales because Thales believed everything came from water and it shall return to water.
Rationalism, necessitism, and logos; the principle of sufficient reason, there is a sufficient reason why everything that is, is so and not otherwise, holds universally; there are no brute facts, nothing occurs at random but everything for a reason and by necessity. The principle of sufficient reason for Thales is water. Thales is implying that the world is a unity in which everything is connected with everything else; more over, the respect in which it is a unity is one that ordinary human cognition is capable of grasping. We can see Thales crucial insight is that things come from water because it is that nature of water to produce them and that they are not fished out of it by supernatural beings. Thales believed all life depends on water.
Therefore, the way Thales created his theory is by observing a few things by turning to biology. One thing that he observed was a plant. He said give water to a plant and it will survive, remove the water and the plant will wither and die. After that he observed a few more things like the seeds of a plant, oceans and earth.
So basically in order for Thales to prove himself he went into biology and chemistry to get himself some support and proof of what he was trying to inform. Philosophy is generally thought to begin with the Pre- Socratics. The major reason why is because of Thales of Miletus. Thales was an ancient greek and the first philosopher. Thales was the early Pre-Socratics. He was known as the father of philosophy.
Before Thales there was no philosopher, thats why Thales is known as the first philosopher. Thales was the one who began the philosophical tradition in the western culture so basically he started everything there. The Pre-Socratics were the first group of thinkers that used Greek mythology, rational thinking, and all the elements of nature to come up with their theories. An early Pre-Socratic is Thales. Thales believed i his grand unified theory which was that everything comes from water and to water it shall return. Thales was the first philosopher in the western tradition that was from the greek city Miletus which is turkey today. Philosophy began with Thales and it is where it is today because of people like Thales.