The Criminal Justice System consist of the three main parts,Law Enforcement (Police Officers, FBI, Department of Homeland Security, CIA,D.E.A), then you also have the Courts System (Attorneys, Judges, Lawyers), andthe Correction System (Jails, Prisons, and Probation and Parole).
The 1st Amendment is the (congress shall make nolaw respecting an establishment or religion, or prohibiting the free exercisethereof or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press or the right of thepeople peaceably to assemble and to petition the government for a redress ofgrievances. The 2nd Amendment is (A well-regulated militia being necessary tothe security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms,shall not be infringed. The 4th Amendment is (The right of people to besecure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, shall not be violated andno Warrants shall be issued, but upon probable cause, supported by oath oraffirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and thepersons or thing to be seized. The 5th Amendment is (No person shall be held toanswer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime unless on a presentment orindictment of a Grand Jury except in cases arising in the land or naval forcesor in the same Militia when in actual service in time of public danger; norshall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy oflife or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witnessagainst himself; nor shall deprived of life, liberty, or property without dueprocess of law: nor shall private property be taken for public use without justcompensation). The 6th amendment is (In all criminal prosecutions the accusedshall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of thestate and district wherein the crime shall have been committed which districtshall have been previously ascertained by law and to be informed of the natureand cause of the accusation to be confronted with the witnesses against him tohave compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor and to have the assistanceof counsel for his defense). The 7th Amendment is (In suits at common lawwhere the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars the right of trialby jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States thanaccording to the rules of the common. The 8th Amendment is (Excessive bail shall not berequired nor excessive fines imposed nor cruel and unusual punishmentsinflicted).
Three Main approaches in criminal behavior is Psychological,Sociological, and Biological. In the Psychological approach theindividual’s personality is the major motivational element that drives behaviorwithin individuals. Crimes then would result from abnormal, dysfunctional orinappropriate mental process within the personality of the individual. It’s alsodefective or abnormal mental process may have a variety of causes, a diseasedmind, inappropriate learning or improper role models and adjustments to innerconflicts. In the sociological behavior the criminality is viewed from thepoint of view of the social causes. Attempting to connect the issues ofindividual criminality with the broader social structures and cultural valuesof society, familial, or peer group.
The biological theories within the fieldof criminology attempt to explain behaviors contrary to societal expectationsthrough examination of individual characteristics. These theories arecategorized within asserts a paradigm called positivism (also known asdetermined), which asserts that behavior including law violating behaviors aredetermined by factors largely beyond individual control. Positivist theoriescontrast with classical theories which critique lawmaking social stratificationand the unequal distribution of power and wealth.
The Ohio Revised Code islegislations is enacted by the laws of Ohio, and codified in the Ohio RevisedCode. State agencies promulgate rules and regulation (sometimes calledadministrative law) in the register of Ohio which are in turn codified in theOhio Administrative Code. The most common separates murder in two degrees(first and second degree murder and treats voluntary and involuntarymanslaughter as separate crimes that do not constitute murder. First degreemurders any intentional murder that is willful and premediated with maliceaforethought. Individual’s crime fit into one and only one category. Theft is abit different in that the same crime will change categories based upon thevalue or the item stolen. Burglary is generally entering a premises with theintent to commit a crime therein. At common law we were very concerned aboutthe safety of people in their homes.
In an organized step by step approachscene documentation is one of the stages in the proper processing of a crimescene. The final results of a properly documented crime scene are the abilityof others to take our finished produced to use in either reconstructing thescene or the chain of events in an incident and our court room presentation. Indocumenting the scene there are actually 3 functions or methods used toproperly document the crime scene. Those methods consist of which willultimately be used in constructing a final report crime scene photographs and adiagram or sketch.
Consistently between each of these functions is paramount.The purpose of a police report is to provide an accurate written account of apolice officer’s observations during the investigation of a criminal. A policereport can only be written by the officer or officers involved in theinvestigation of an incident. Evidence is the available body facts or informationindicating whether a belief of proposition is true or valid. AnalogicalEvidence is not the kind of evidence you’d useful for increasing credibility bydrawing parallels when there isn’t enough information to prove something in aworkplace investigation analogical evidence uses a comparison of things thatare similar to draw an analogy. Anecdotal Evidence isn’t used in court but cansometimes help in workplace investigation to get a better picture of an issue.The biggest problem with this kind of evidence is that it is often “cherrypicked” to present only anecdotes that support a particular conclusion,consider it with skepticism and in combination with other more reliable kindsof evidence. Circumstantial Evidence is also known as indirect evidence; thistype of evidence is used to infer something based on a series of facts separatefrom the fact the argument is trying to prove.
It requires deduction of factsfrom other facts that can be proven and while not considered to be strongevidence, it can be relevant in a workplace investigation which has a differentburden of proof than a criminal investigation. Demonstrative Evidence is anobject or document is considered to be demonstrates a fact. It’s a common andreliable kind of evidence are photographs video and audio recording charts. Ina workplace investigation this could be an audio recording of someone’sharassing behavior or a photograph offensive graffiti. In the process of crimescene investigation, this approach is not only common sense but also vital. Toproperly analyze and interpret any crime scene, certain basic steps must befollowed in ordered to create a sense of begging and a sensible conclusion tothe examination. The strip method requires that crime scene personnel walk apath from one end of the crime scene over to the other side of the room or areaand then return in the direction from which he or she first started. The wheelmethod employs the use of several crime scene personnel or searchers.
Startingin the middle of an imaginary circle each investigator moves in a directionstraight out from the center or hub of the wheel much like the spokes of abicycle wheel. The spiral method has the investigators examining the area forevidence in an outward direction. Thezone method breaks the crime scene area into squares. For example, a livingroom can be divided into four equal sections and examined by an individualinvestigator.
The chain of custody is the order in which a piece of criminalevidence should be handled by persons investigating a case specify, theunbroken trial of accountability that ensures the physical security of samplesdata and records in a criminal investigators.