The eighteenth amendment to the constitution, ratified in January 1919 and enacted in January 1920, outlawed the “manufacture, sale, transportation of intoxicating liquor.” The amendment was an effort brought together by the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, as well as the Anti-saloon league. The Prohibition had many consequences: it made brewing and distilling illegal, suppressed elements of immigrants and working-class culture, and many more. One of the biggest consequences to arise are mobsters who grew rich supplying and bootlegging illegal alcohol. Another outcome to the prohibition are speakeasies, places one could secretly obtain alcohol. After 13 years the eighteenth amendment was repealed. The roles of women in the 1920’s varied considerably. Most of the women remained in the traditional role of housewife. However, the number of working women rose by 25% as a result of the work they had undertaken during WW1. The roles of women in the workplace consisted of jobs such as factory workers, secretaries, sales clerks, and telephone operators. Women began to smoke as a sign of “modern sophistication”. Women also began to express themselves with the introduction of the flapper. A flapper with her short hair, short skirt, and all around quirky attitude. The flapper represented a breakthrough for women finally being daring enough to cut their hair and let their ankles show. The Ku Klux Klan was a social club created by ex-confederates in 1866. The organization was soon nicknamed the “invisible empire of the south.” The KKK devoted itself to an underground campaign of violence towards against Republican leaders and voters in order to reverse the racial policies that were put in place. In 1871 the KKK act was passed which led to the arrest of many members. By 1882, the reconstruction era can to an end and with it led the disbandment of the KKK. However, by the 1920’s a revival of the KKK arose. With the revival came a membership of around 4.5 million “white male persons, native-born gentile citizens.” Members were paid to recruit new members into the secret society. The society’s idea was to put blacks ” in their place.” So, to do so there was a high criminal activity. Due to this, it led the organization into a downturn of power and was disbanded by the end of the 1920’s. The Roaring Twenties, was the name of the great decade. It had achieved that name by all the advancements, culture, and spirit at the time. In thie decade, mass production was taken to new heights and set a standard for new products to come. Sadly due to the events leading to the Great Depression, farmers took a hit on their living expenses. It actually began with an economic whimper; the transition back to peacetime after World War I was a difficult adjustment. Labor unions, which had grown strong during the war, fought to maintain their power through a series of strikes in 1919. The largest strikes—a General Strike of all workers in Seattle, and a strike of the entire American steel industry—affected hundreds of thousands of workers and consumers, and the radical rhetoric used by some workers’ leaders seemed to raise the prospect of full-fledged class warfare. Coming just two years after a successful Communist revolution in Russia, the militancy of the 1919 strike wave proved deeply alarming to most Americans; employers held firm against workers’ demands, andmost of the big strikes, including the strikes of Seattle and big steel, collapsed when workers returned to work under heavy threat of violence.The labor turmoil and difficulties of the transition back to peacetime production caused a short but sharp recession in 1920-21, with unemployment briefly exceeding 11 percent.12 However, the situation soon turned around, thanks in no small part to Commerce Secretary (and future President) Herbert Hoover’s success in convincing major industrial leaders to voluntarily increase wages and production in order to pull the entire economy out of its slump. By 1922, the economy was growing robustly, a pattern it would follow more or less continuously until the Great Crash of 1929.Hoover’s was set on having a small government and that belief led him to stand by and not help out while the economy collapsed in 1929 when the stock market crashed. Far from being a bystander, Hoover actively intervened in the economy, advocating and implementing policies that were quite similar to those that Franklin Roosevelt later implemented. Moreover, many of Hoover’s interventions, like those of hisa successor, caused the Great Depression to last so long. was the 30th President of the United States (1923–1929). A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state. His response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. Soon after, he was elected as the 29th Vice President in 1920 and succeeded to the Presidency. Elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small government conservative, and also as a man who said very little, although having a fair sense of humor.On poverty, Hoover said that “Given the chance to go forward with the policies of the last eight years, we shall soon with the help of God, be in sight of the day when poverty will be banished from this nation”, and promised, “We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land,” but within months, the Stock Market Crash of 1929 occurred, and the world’s economy trickled into the Great Depression . Hoover had a plan to reform the nation’s regulatory system, believing that a federal bureaucracy should have limited regulation over a country’s economic system. A self-described progressive and reformer. Hoover saw volunteerism as preferable to governmental coercion or intervention which he saw as opposed to the American ideals of individualism and self-reliance.Long before he had entered politics, he had denounced laissez-faire thinking.