The UK government also provides incentives fordevelopment of EV charging infrastructure 45. Thegovernment provides incentives for three types of charging facilities: · Electric VehicleHomecharge Scheme (EVHS): Eligible electric vehicle homecharge scheme provides grantfunding of up to 75% of the cost of installing chargepoints (capped atGBP 500) at domestic propertiesall over the UK 45 46.· WorkplaceCharging Scheme (WCS): This schemes provides eligible applicants withsupport for the upfront costs of the purchase and installation of EVchargepoints limited to GBP 300 for each socket up to a maximum of 20 acrossall sites for each application 47.· On-streetResidential Chargepoint Scheme (ORCS): Local authorities can use this funding scheme to benefit 75%subsidy for the cost of installing a chargepoint and a specific parking space of an on-street residential chargepoints.GBP7,500 is the maximum amount of funding per charging point that Officefor Low Emission Vehicles provides 48. Table 19 shows the number of charging points in UK from2012 to 2016.
Table19. Number of charging points in UK (2012-2016) 19 Year 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Publicly accessible slow chargers 1 2804 5515 7431 8716 10736 Publicly accessible fast charger s2 36 176 481 1121 1523 Total 2840 5691 7912 9837 12259 As of march2017, there arecurrently 13 operational hydrogen refueling stations in the UK, while some arereserved for University or research purposes 49. Two types of FCVs is available forpurchase in UK (Hyundai ix35 FCV andToyota Mirai). Toyota UK said that 28 Mirai vehicles have been registered in the country asof March 2017 since its launch in 2016 49. Table 20 shows BEVand PHEV stock in the UK from 2012 to 2016.Table 20.BEV and PHEV stock in the UK (2012-2016) 19 year Number of BEVs and PHEVs (thousands) 2012 5.59 (82% BEV, 18% PHEV) 2013 9.
34 (78% BEV, 22% PHEV) 2014 24.08 (58% BEV, 42% PHEV) 2015 48.51 (43% BEV, 578% PHEV) 2016 86.42(36% BEV, 74% PHEV) UK’s EVcumulative sales target by 2020 is 0.5 million vehicles 22.UK has no target for the number of FCVs sold 50.
1.1 NorwayNorway alongside Denmark are the two countries in theworld with the highest new car purchase taxes 9. Generally, incentives in Norway for supportingthe deployment of EVs is stronger than incentives in countries such as France,Japan and the USA 9 which led to Norway havingthe highest electric car penetration among all countries 19.
FCV purchases in Norway are exempt ofpurchase tax (which can be as high as 100 % for petrol cars) and also Zerovalue added tax (25 %) 51. FCV owners can also enjoy low annualroad-tax (10 % of normal), free public parking, access to bus / taxi-lanes andfree passing through toll-roads 51. The same incentives are alsoavailable for BEVs 19. However, the Government andregional politicians have started to reduce the benefits for BEVs, and warnedthat these supports will be gradually phased out 51.
Development of HRSs in Norway has benefited from government support. The HyNorproject in Norway was a joint industry initiative to demonstrate the real-lifeimplementation of a hydrogen energy infrastructure across Norway 52. This projectwas a public-private partnership 53. Norwayalso provides public funding for deployment of fast-charging stations every 50km (on average) on main roads and at the same time contributes to deploymentincentives for public chargers 19.
As of October2017, there are 6 HRSs in Norway 54. Table 21 shows the number of accessible slow and fast chargers in Norway.Table21. Number of accessible chargers in Norway 19 Year 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Publicly accessible slow chargers 3688 4511 5185 5289 7105 Publicly accessible fast chargers 58 144 249 698 1052 Total 3746 4655 5434 5987 8157 As of October2017, there are about 80 FCVs in Norway 54. Table 22shows BEV and PHEV stock in Norway from 2012 to 2016.
Table22. BEV and PHEV stock inNorway (2012-2016) 19 year Number of BEVs and PHEVs (thousands) 2012 9.89 (97% BEV, 3% PHEV) 2013 20.37 (97% BEV, 3% PHEV) 2014 44.21 (95% BEV, 5% PHEV) 2015 84.
18 (86% BEV, 14% PHEV) 2016 133.26 (74% BEV, 26% PHEV) Uno-X Hydrogenhas the target to build 20 hydrogen refueling stations in Norway by 2020through H2-20 project 55.In Norway, there is also regional targets for the number of FCVs and HRSs.Oslo-Akershus region targets to have at least 350 FCVs by the end of 2018. By2025 the region is also targeting to have a sufficiently established HRSnetwork which forms a basis for a national and Nordic infrastructure for FCVs.The target for number of FCVs will be over 10,000 56.Norway’s target for number of electric vehicles is 50,000 by 2018 22.1 Slowchargers include AC Level 2 chargers (> 3.7 kW and ? 22 kW) 192Fast chargers include AC 43 kW chargers, DC chargers, Tesla Superchargers andinductive chargers 19