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BANG… Billions of years ago there was a chemical reaction that caused a massive expansion called “the Big Bang” (Larocco 2011). Electrons and nuclei formed atoms. These atoms formed a gaseous cloud Earth. Through chemical reactions caused by energy produced by the Sun a molecule that was able to self-replicate developed. This is the first sign of evolution. Through subsequent chemical reactions inorganic compounds came into existence. The first ancestor of today’s cell is called a Protobiont. It took millions of years just to get to this point (Zimmer 2010). It took another 10 billion years for us to discover the key to understanding our own genetic makeup, the double helix. The double helix model first came to the public’s attention when it was published in the scientific journal “Nature” in 1953 by the discoverers James D. Watson and Francis Crick. A photo known as “Photo 51” taken by Rosalind Franklin was the key to finding the double helix (Zimmer 2010).The discovery of the double helix has led to further understanding of how our genes work and how we have evolved over time. Through DNA, or Deoxyribonucleic acid, research we have been able to decode how different genes affect different areas of our body. Genes affect our phenotypic traits. Phenotypic traits control how we look. DNA research has led to finding out what causes certain diseases like cancer. With this knowledge we have been able to engineer drugs to combat diseases that attack our genes. Through subtle changes to our DNA we have been able to adapt and evolve to thrive in our environment (Zimmer 2010).Stephen Hawking is a world renowned English theoretical physicist and cosmologist; he has many awards for his work in the field of physics and cosmology. In his…

…Kazan, Casey. “Stephen Hawking: “Humans Have Entered a New Stage of Evolution”” The Daily Galaxy – Great Discoveries Channel -Your Daily Dose of Awe: Science, Space, Tech. The Daily Galaxy, 03 July 2009. Web. 13 Nov. 2011. .

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Hawking, Stephen. “Life in the Universe.” Professor Stephen Hawking. Stephen Hawking. Web. 13 Nov. 2011. .

LaRocco, Chris, and Blair Rothstein. “THE BIG BANG.” University of Michigan. University of Michigan. Web. 13 Nov. 2011. .

Hawking, Stephen. “Stephen Hawking: Life in the Universe – YouTube.” YouTube – Broadcast Yourself. Youtube, 16 Dec. 2009. Web. 13 Nov. 2011. .

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