The human brainconsists of about 90% of water.
It isroughly categorised into 3 parts: Cerebrum, Cerebellum and brain stem1. Thebasic functions of these parts are to sense, control various activities,controlling secretion and maintaining the entire body function. Cerebrum, dealswith emotions, movement initiation, consciousness awareness of sensation.Cerebellum, deals with muscle movement and balance maintenance. Brain stem,controls heart regulation, respiration, and hormone secretion2. The brain ismost important part of the human body any kind of imbalance leads to variousdiseases which can be long term or short term duration, curable or non-curabledepending on its severity. Some of the diseases related to brain are: AutismSpectrum Disorder, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, cerebral palsy, etc. Autism is a Greekword which means “isolated self”, Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD) is a braindisorder which is related to inability to understand emotions and gestures,social awkwardness, disconnected to people in surroundings, failure to read orwrite or speak fluently, repeatable behaviour6, etc.
, are the symptoms ofthis disorder. This is usually a non-curable disorder and is diagnosed inchildren above 1year old. It’s a disease related to cerebrum. Autism SpectrumDisorder is related to “Spectrum” of symptoms, level of severity, disabilityand skills. It can be considered as a disorder rather than a disease; itsdiagnosis is difficult in today’s time which is encouraging researchers inSignal Processing, Neuroscience and Artificial Intelligence domain. Thisdisorder is increasing at an exponential rate. According to reports of April2017, by Centre for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC), 1 in every 68 child3 is detected with Autism with boys to girls ratio being 4.
5:1 2. Figure 1shows the statistics of ASD patients of various years according to the surveyconducted by Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM). ASDs begin in childhood and tend to persist intoadolescence and adulthood. While some people with ASD can live independently,others have severe disabilities and require life-long care and support. Globally, access to services and support for people withASD is inadequate. IT can be categorised into three types: Low functioningAutism (LFA) or mild autism, Medium functioning Autism (MFA) or moderate autismand High functioning Autism (HFA) or severe autism