The idea of protecting the environment has its origins in the second half of the nineteenth century. In Europe, it emerged from the movement in response to the dynamic process of industrialization and urban sprawl, and an increasing level of air and water pollution. The United States was founded as a result of growing concerns about the state of the natural resources of the country, supported by key philosophical references such outstanding individuals like John Mir or Henry David Thoreau.Both conservation priorities, as well as the belief in the hereditary nature of the law are the inundations for today’s efforts to protect the environment. In the twentieth century, the popularity and the level of knowledge about the environment continue to grow. II. United Nations and Environment Changing ideas and thinking about the world’s environment is where the UN has probably had its greatest influence. Over the six decades since the Nun’s founding, global awareness, thinking, concern, and global policy in relation to the environment have changed beyond recognition.
As with human rights, the UN has often taken the international lead that has challenged and changed national and international priorities. The landmarks Of these changes include: 1962: The UN Declaration on Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources detailed the rights of countries to freely manage natural resources for the benefit of the population and national economic development. 1972: The UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm pioneered the idea that issues of environment and development must be approached together, politically and operationally. 982: The UN Convention of the Law of the Sea gave rise to extended resource rights for coastal states, protection of the marine environment, and an international deep-seabed regime based on the ascent principle of the common heritage of humankind. The latter principle counterbalanced rights of fishing with the duty to take measures of conservation. 1987: The Montreal Convention on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a legally binding treaty for the control of ozone depleting substances.The 2006 Montreal Protocol controls the use of ninety-six chemicals and sets forth a detailed schedule for their phase out with differing targets and deadlines for developed and developing countries.
1 987: The report of the World Commission on Environment and Development Our Common Future introduced the concept of sustainable development as insuring that development “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. 1988: The creation of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (PICO has provided the lead for the growing international consensus on the global problems presented by climate change. 1992: The UN Conference on Environment and Development-?known also as the Earth Summit-?took stock of progress since the Stockholm conference, linked environmental protection to poverty eradication, and emphasized priorities for the least- developed and most environmentally vulnerable countries.The summit concluded by agreeing to Agenda 21 for achieving sustainable development in the ;ninety-first century as well as opening for signature the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2007: The Epics fourth assessment report presented a comprehensive statement of knowledge on all aspects of climate change.
The report’s major finding is not only that evidence for global warming and climate change is unequivocal, but that the human influence behind this change is now beyond doubt, largely the result of increases in carbon emissions.II. Creation of UNEVEN In 1 969, UN Secretary-General U Than presents a report that justifies the need for a global approach to environmental protection and the need to protect all of its elements. The report identified global risks, and proposed program of the conference, which was held in 1 972 in Stockholm. The consequence Of the Stockholm conference was the establishment Of UN agencies as the United Nations Program for the Environment (United Nations Environment Programmer ; UNEVEN), whose aim is to universal development of environmental law.
United Nations Environment Programmer UNEVEN carries UT its global mission under the banner of the Environment for Development (Environment for Development) based on the premise that a harmonious and smooth development of mankind is impossible without adequate state of the environment and care for the sustainable management of our planet. UNEVEN task is to serve as a global leader and promote a global partnership of international organizations, national governments, Nags, business and industry, the media and society to care for the environment. IV.
Action and Cooperation The main areas of UNEVEN: environmental assessment and anticipated changes in global, regional and cantonal – publishing global, regional and thematic reports on the state of the environment; formulation of international environmental agreements (international conventions relating to: climate change, biodiversity conservation, waste management and other environmental pollutants); supporting institutions and organizations active in the sustainable management of environmental resources; supporting efforts to integrate economic development with environmental protection; dissemination of knowledge and technology for sustainable development; promoting partnerships between the public and private sectors for sustainable placement and environmental protection; Patrons of international initiatives related to the environment.Key Environmental Challenges: Loss of biodiversity and degradation Of ecosystems, long-term Air pollution and implications for climate change Degradation of aquatic ecosystems and degradation The impact of the use of chemicals on the environment Production of waste Depletion of non-renewable resources UNEVEN works with many organizations such as: 1) The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (now the World Conservation Union), which aims to: environmental education and propaganda, repose legal and economic solutions for environmental protection (can not impose any action), protection of endangered species of plants and animals, environmental policy 2) WHO World Health Organization – examines the relationship between the state of the environment and human health. 3) FAA of the United Nations Organization for Food and Agriculture – determines the quality and size of the food on the environmental background. 4) World Wild Fund for Animals and Plants (est.. 1961) is a species of spectacular. ) UNESCO – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (est..
1 945), which has plopped a list of the world cultural and natural heritage. In 1970, under the auspices of the program was “Man and Biosphere”. V. What was World Conservation 1980 ? UN Secretary-General IS Than in his report of 1 969 drew attention to the need to develop a global plan of action to protect the environment and international cooperation in this field. Neither the report nor the conference in Stockholm did not specify the exact rules Of global environmental policy.
Not solved the problem of the development aspirations of poor countries and the limits to growth arising from the requirements of environmental protection.Only in 1980, a compromise was agreed first decree: World Conservation 1980. This is important because until that date can be considered as the beginning of the period of global environmental policy. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in cooperation with the Natural Program of the united Nations World Environment and Wildlife Fund, with the approval of the FAA and UNESCO has developed the World Conservation Strategy, which has set three main objectives: 1 .
Maintaining essential ecological processes and systems that are a mainstay of life, 2. Preservation of genetic diversity, 3. insuring the sustainable use of species.
At the head of list of priorities found themselves: a) preservation of good agricultural land for agriculture, b) stop before the occupation of farming areas with a protective function (egg forests), and support for healthy organic cultivation rules. VI. ROI Conference and Agenda 21 Economic development can not be stopped or in rich countries or poor, but it must be environmentally friendly. At a conference in Stockholm initiated an international debate on the subject. This principle has also been accepted at the conference of the Earth Summit in ROI De Jeanine in 1 992, and in New York in 1997.
At a conference in ROI was adopted Global Programmer of Action for the twenty-first century, the Agenda 21 . This document was a set of recommendations for countries to tackle major problems for the world. Reasons for the adoption of the program were as follows: 1 .
Rowing overpopulation of the world, which prevents the further economic development of the world by traditional patterns (including a limited amount of resources), 2. The need to maintain and increase the potential of the food (increase productivity and develop new technologies), 3. The need to increase industrial output by decreasing quantities of raw materials, 4. He need to ensure energy supply (required for development) without causing adverse environmental, 5. Growing arbitration of the world, 6. The need to protect ecosystems – against all these risks – both in terms Of geographical regions, as well as to various species of flora and fauna.The solution to these problems and enable sustainable development is only possible by replacing short-term long-term approach, in which the role of the man far removed from the parasitic. This requires the development of a new system of values, which include: 1.
Restraint lifestyle, 2. Dominance of the quantitative quality requirements, . Harmonistic objectives of the possibilities of human nature, 4. Appreciation for the value of natural and cultural diversity, 5. Preservation of non-renewable natural resources, 6. Environmental protection a priority when making decisions at all levels, 7.
The needs of future generations and the environment in the assumptions Of developmental processes, 8. Aging into account the principles of development and people’s lives on a global scale and in international relations. The conference in ROI De Jeanine resulted in two international agreements, brought two declarations of principles and program of Agenda 21 . Also signed two conventions: 1 .
On Climate Change, which aims to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at a level that does not threaten the global climatic system, 2. Biodiversity. After five years at a conference in New York concluded that the main environmental problems were not resolved due to financial constraints. VILE Acid rain The problem of acid rain occurrence was noticed in the ass’s of last century.
There was the impact Of acid rain on lakes and forests, and decided to do something about it. Scandinavian researchers have found that the main factors of acid precipitation are oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. According to researchers from Scandinavia for action that would have to reduce emissions of these gases into the atmosphere. The first international conference, which was devoted to the problem of acid rain in Nova took place in 1976.
The following year it was launched Norway signed an international convention on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. The event took place during a meeting of the committee for the protection of the environment United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.Another important step is made in the regulations on acid rain was the signing of the Geneva Convention on turnarounds air pollution over long distances.
Convention assumed to reduce pollution, but did not say anything specific, and only protocols that are attached to the Convention give out to what level should reduce emissions and at what time. Among the countries which have signed the Convention were, inter alai, the United States, Canada and Poland. However, these provisions were not enough need to have some major changes in the maintenance of the environment. For this reason, the Scandinavian countries all signatories of the Geneva Convention proposed to educe emissions of sulfur dioxide by 30%.Such a step was a very brave move, and because of what funding is required: Poland, United States, United Kingdom, and several southern European countries have not adopted the same commitment exposing themselves to criticism from the international opinion.
And that’s what Sulfur Protocol called the commitment to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions by 30% assumed that by 1993 will be met. Currently in progress is the second Sulfur Protocol, which requires that the sulfur precipitation across Europe was such as not to prejudice the ecological balance. VIII. Global Warming As the name suggests global warming is not, of course, nothing but a rise in air temperature and water globally on the whole planet.
The temperature of the planet is significantly affected by the atmosphere around us. Through it gets to us in the form of solar electromagnetic wave.Then, an atmosphere that contains such gases as carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrogen oxides the energy stops. It is through the behavior of the atmosphere, the temperature of the planet rises over time.
A. Convention on climate The result of the growing political interest in global warming and related work undertaken on the international Stage the adoption of the united Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, popularly known as the Climate Convention. This convention, which in just t-van. Or years more than 160 countries have joined the most important international agreement in the field of climate protection and reflects the complicated system of political and economic priorities of the States Parties.The fact that in general failed to reach an agreement acceptable to the countries with often conflicting social and political interests is a great achievement of international diplomacy.
Its importance is even greater that the Convention puts in the spotlight the good of future generations (our generation does not even feel the effects of global warming). On the other hand, however, this consensus has been paid with numerous amendments and changes in the text of the Convention, which weaken its strength and call into question the real ability to achieve its objectives. B. The most important provisions of the Climate Convention The primary objective of the Convention, as determined by the Art. Is: “to stabilize the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a level hat will prevent dangerous anthropogenic impacts On the climate system. This level should be achieved within a time sufficient for the natural adaptation of ecosystems to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened, and economic development can be done in a sustainable way.
” In practice, Article 2 is sometimes interpreted differently depending on the intentions of the parties claiming him. The countries most vulnerable to the effects of global warming tend to read it as an instrument that requires businesses to reduce those areas that do not increase greenhouse gas missions and comply with the principles of sustainable development.Such an interpretation, supported additionally stored in Article 3 (3) the precautionary principle would require the parties, especially from developed countries, a significant reduction of CA emitted into the atmosphere and far- reaching changes in the energy sector. These changes, particularly in the short time scale, would have to reflect the volume of production in other areas and could facilitate the implementation and consolidating a more environmentally friendly consumption patterns and development.
Many Mounties, however, in favor of a more limited understanding of Article 2 In his interpretation point out that the Convention recognizes the need to stabilize greenhouse gases at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic impacts on the climate.Determination of acceptable levels of these gases in the atmosphere must therefore first clarify what can and what can not be considered dangerous effects. The Convention is silent on the subject, leaving much room for arbitrary interpretation. Given the significant degree of scientific uncertainty about the ultimate scale and the actual effects of global arming, countries could have in this case a very different position, especially as the effects of climate change are not evenly spread in time and space. Countries reluctant to make specific commitments also indicate that the Convention does not speak of the need to immediately reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but only about their stability in time to ensure that it is not compromised world food production.Our current knowledge does not allow for the clear identification of the length of the period. Frequently indicated dividing line along which puts the ratio of states to issues of climate retention and reducing greenhouse gas emissions is to divide the countries of the rich North and the emerging economies of the South. Developed countries, which are inhabited by 20% of the planet’s population consumes 80% of the world’s fossil fuels.
The average energy consumption per capita is in them 5-10 times higher than the world average. The share of developing countries in greenhouse gas emissions is lower (approximately one third) but the rate of increase in emissions is here five times higher than in industrialized countries.If this trend can not be reversed in 2050 years is the arrest producer of CA will China produce more of it than all other countries combined. Global warming is a threat to everyone, but in the negotiations on climate change puts North principal emphasis on the need for concerted action to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at the same time draws attention to the need to adopt such solutions, which will be the most cost- effective. Meanwhile, the countries of the South show for their consistently unmet demand for energy, which will increase as economic growth and increase in population (it is estimated that 90% of the two billion people who will be born in 2020 born in the South).They raise the question of the responsibility for historical emissions of COZY which led to the current level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, emissions are overwhelmingly borne by countries of the North Account. IX.
Air Pollution The most common air pollutants are environmental pollutants and easiest way they happen. Most to air pollution contributes to the industry, energy and road transport. For these most sources of air pollution created and it is these sources emit most gases which are harmful to the environment. Among these gases can be distinguished above all by myself aforementioned carbon oxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, lead and other dusts. Almost from the beginning of the industrial revolution we see increasing air pollution.At the moment, everything is done to reduce the pollution, because with him there were many environmental threats that they are no longer a vision of the future, but they become very real.
Among these risks can include, among others: the ozone hole, which affected the appearance of Freon, as a result Of air pollution acid rain occurred, the most frequently occurring smog over urban areas, and the greenhouse effect is the effect of air pollution. But in addition to air pollution, under the responsibility of man are also contaminants that occur naturally. It is for such reasons of air pollution can include volcanic eruptions, which put a lot of air volatiles, including water vapor, and solid debris. A.Convention on Long-range Turnarounds Air Pollution Since 1 979 the Convention on Long-range Turnarounds Air Pollution has addressed some of the major environmental problems of the OUNCE region through scientific collaboration and policy negotiation. The Convention has been extended by eight protocols that identify specific measures to be taken y Parties to cut their emissions of air pollutants.
The Convention, which now has 51 Parties identifies the Executive Secretary of SCIENCE as its secretariat The aim of the Convention is that Parties shall endeavourer to limit and, as far as possible, gradually reduce and prevent air pollution including long-range turnarounds air pollution. Parties develop policies and strategies to combat the discharge of air pollutants through exchanges of information, consultation, research and monitoring.The Parties meet annually at sessions of the Executive Body to review ongoing work and plan future activities including a workplace for the coming year. The three main subsidiary bodies the Working Group on Effects , the Steering Body to EMBER and the Working Group on Strategies and Review – as well as the Convention’s Implementation Committee, report to the Executive Body each year. X. Rich and Poor A serious problem that worsens the condition of the environment especially in developing countries are waste from industrialized countries.
Export of waste on a large scale began in the eighties. In 1 989, about 20% of hazardous waste from developed countries to developing countries exported.The first entry that started to export waste to Canada, Mexico, Latin America and Africa, the United States. In the last decade, Western Europe exported over 10 million tones of waste to Eastern Europe and the unknown quantities to Africa, even though there is valid ban the import of waste in accordance with the Convention of Bamako (Mali) in 1991. Countries such as Gabon, Congo, Guiana, Sierra Leone and Nigeria import industrial waste, as they are a valuable source of funds. Voluntary adoption Of proposed waste China. South Korea and the Philippines is a recipient of waste from Japan. Reasons for adoption by the poor countries of toxic waste from industrialized countries are: 1 .
Increasingly stringent environmental regulations and an increase in the cost of storage (it is estimated that the cost of 1 ton of waste disposal in developed countries is 1 60 – $ 3000, compared to S 2. 5 African countries) and the disposal of waste in industrialized countries, 2. Economic problems of poor countries for which admission can waste a substantial income. Location environmentally hazardous manufacturing industries in developing countries is another form of risk transfer. In these countries, the legal standards for the protection of the environment are more liberal than in the industrialized countries, or not at all.
This encourages American and European companies to locate their plants there. Therefore, most environmental disasters connected with Western firms in developing countries.As an example, the pesticide plant disaster in Opal (India), the cause was the lack of adequate protection: liquid methyl were stored in containers with a capacity of 57 1 20 liters, with the limit values in force in the United States, and Germany 1 7 500 l. The number of deaths rated at 2.
-4 thousand and 20 thousand wounded on. American company Union Carbide had to pay compensation in the amount of U. S.
$ 470 million. For example, you may also use the Twist ecological disaster caused by poisoning the waters of cyanide compounds. They came from the maltreated flooded gold mine in Baa Mare in Romania, which is by no means a Romania, and is owned by Western European company.
Cyanide method used there is prohibited, but the cheapest – so used. Export of hazardous products is another form of risk transfer.This is due to the vagueness of legislation in developing countries and can export them manned or dangerous substances such as drugs and pesticides. In 1 992 he was sent to Russia 120 tons of British beef suspected of having an infection called: mad cow disease. These examples lead to the conclusion that industrialized countries necessarily benefit from the potential of the natural environment of poor nations, drawing on the natural resources in their territory without compensation for the destruction of the environment, taking advantage of absorption environments of these countries by exporting toxic waste or locate onerous and dangerous manufacturing operations.