Furthermore, after understanding that many sensory processes differ between males and females and being enforced by biological findings and the developmental hunter- gatherer theory , we decide to search simultaneously for any sex differences. Unfortunately we did not find in any of our tests any statistically significant difference. INTRODUCTION Humans like other predators have a frontal eye layer . Their eyes have averagely 6,mm distance , which allows them to use both monocular and binocular CUes in their perception of the external environment .
Monocular CUes like size, perspective, occlusion, accommodation and depth of motion is the reason why ,even with only one eye opened, we still have the perception of depth. However, with the use of both eyes we experience a more detailed perception of depth, as the brain receives two visual outputs with slight lye different discrepancies for the same object that converge into one ,giving us the vivid ensue of three-dimensionality . In our study we will examine how efficient is the binocular vision compared to monocular vision in tasks- managing , including the use of tools (James T.
McLain, 1996). Read et al (2013) have already examined the difference of binocular and monocular vision in manual-dexterity tasks by comparing the performance of the participants in three different tests ( Morrissey Fine Dexterity,a modified version of Morrissey tests by using fingers instead and the buzz-wire test. ). We used only the Buzz-wire test, the one that had after all the most significant difference and we hypothesize that we will find, s well a binocular benefit.
Despite of the difference in performance between the binocular and monocular vision, attention was, also drawn in a possible sex difference. Generally, in the literature we can see a lack of interest in the “initial” stages of the visual procedure, even though other cognitive and perceptual abilities have been tested to explore possible differences. There are some strong implications indicating, that there would be a gender difference, if we consider that for other sensations, like auditory, olfactory and somatic-sensory, it has been proved that males and females have a physiologically different structures.
Specifically, the levels of androgen’s were demonstrated to be in both rats and humans as “more concentrated in the foreordain is in the cerebral cortex and not in the hypothalamus and the limbic areas”, concluding that the androgen binding receptors might influence the visual functioning. There are conclusive evidences that the androgen DOTH , and not the estrogen, discrepancy are responsible for the time length of the cell death in the primary visual cortex of rats and as a result males tend to have around 20% more neurons in that cortical area.
Moreover, the androgen receptor m RNA and AR expressing cells eave higher density levels in males compare to the females and this difference in the androgen receptors may display a gender discrimination in the regional mechanism of the cerebral cortex of the rats( Nuzzle L, Surgeons HA, Jurassic JAM, 2000). Except from these biological evidences, the hunter-gatherer theory has lead us to question whether there are any sex differences in the quality of the task’s performance and in the importance of binocular vision.
According to the theory that Silverman and Ells (1992) proposed, the reason for the spatial differences is coming back from the Pleistocene era , where the males had the ole of the hunter, tracing other animals and finding back the way at home (Irwin Silverman, Jean Choc, Michael Peters,2007). In Abraham’s experiment (Israel Abraham , James Gordon , Olga Feldman and All Chaparral ,2012) they found that males are significantly more sensitive to details and moving stimuli ,a finding that supports the hunter-gatherer theory .
Recruiting an equal number of female and male participants allowed us to search for sex differences, while comparing the spatial and hand-eye coordinating processing with and without binocular information. We hypothesized that we might found some difference teen the two genders, because if males were adopted with spatial abilities regarding hunting, then females would possibly have a spatial ability concerning the gathering.
Since we are examining the importance of binocular information in the control of skilled action, we expect to find an enhanced performance in women, since the binocular information was essential for the woman’s role as a gatherer, as it provides peripheral visual information . METHODS PARTICIPANTS. In total 84 participants were recruited for this experiment. Originally, as part of their module coursework requirement, 42 second year undergraduate students kook part in this experiment.
They were asked to be accompanied by another voluntary participant of the opposite sex. So, as a result we had an almost equal number of males(N=43) and females(N=41) allowing us to explore any possible sex difference. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS. In this experiment a buzz- wire test (Figure 1) was used to examine the difference in performance between binocular and monocular vision . The buzz-wire tracks were taken from the Science Museum with CM dimensions. The participants had to drive a wire loop around a AD wire track without touching the track .
When the loop was touching the track, a buzzing noise indicated the intact and this contact was marked down by the experimenters as an error. The wire track was formed differently in each group, in order to have a relevant variation, but all of them were following a similar, complex route characterized by curves and turns, that made the task challenging and the use of stereotypes more essential to complete the task with the less possible errors. The length of the buzz-wire was varying in each group from 60 CM to 84 CM .
The chronometer Cassia HAS-IOW was, also, used to calculate the amount of time each participant needed to complete the test in each condition. Finally, in the monocular conditions a paper glass-skeleton was used to cover, depending in the condition, either the dominant or non-dominant eye. Figure 1: The buzz-wire test that Read, Begum, McDonald and Drawbridge,( 2013) used as well in their experiment . DESIGN A within-subject experiment was used. In the experiment we had three independent variables ; binocular vision, monocular dominant eye and non-dominant eye vision and sex.
The dependent variables were the time of completing the task and the number of buzz-errors -In order to avoid getting more familiar with the task and inhibit any possible performance preferences across the conditions, we used six possibly orders (DON,DUB,etc) to counterbalance the effect. PROCEDURE Originally the psychology students of the University of Essex, in terms of a university coursework laboratory, they were separated into groups from A to K with each group consisting of around three to four students.
Each group formed the wire track of their buzz-wire test on their own, so there would be a variation between the buzz-wires. The instructor asked the students to bring another one participant of the opposite sex with them, in order to have an equal number of females and males participants. Before the beginning of the trials all the participants were asked to identify their dominant eye. While holding their thumb in their arm’s height, they were told to find a landmark. The eye that was more aligned with the landmark, when the other one was closed, was the dominant one.
Each participant took part in every condition, but each in different order, as there were six different orders for the sake of counterbalancing any familiarization from trial to trial with the wire track route. (a. DON, b. DUB, c. AND, d. N.B. ,e. BAD, f. BAND with (D)standing for the dominant eye,(N) for on-dominant and (B) for binocular). While each participants was running the experiment one of the psychology students was calculating the time of each trial and another one the number of the buzzes. In the monocular conditions the participants had to wear eye-patches .