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The system in the body that creates, retains, and removes the fluid products of the kidneys is as the known as the urinary or renal system, and it is one of many excretory systems responsible for removal of waste from the body (Martini, Ober, Nath, Bartholomew, & Petti, 2015). Nephrons are the particular anatomical components of the kidneys that are responsible for urine production. Nephrons serve to remove waste components from the blood. Urine is a liquid excreted containing the remains from metabolism of macromolecules from various biological systems (Martini et al., 2018). Nephrons are composed of the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule (Amnie, 2018).

These components must interact with the body’s blood. Blood flows by nephrons through a series of arterioles and capillaries. At the beginning of filtration blood starts at the afferent arteriole, flows to the efferent arteriole, travels into the peritubular capillaries, and finishes in the veins of the kidneys where it has been cleansed of waste products and has been supplied with a variety of beneficial molecules (Amnie, 2018).

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These networks of tubes and capillaries begin with the filtration of blood to create the end product of urine to be excreted by the kidneys. Blood passes the glomerulus which extracts waste product that then becomes known as glomerular filtrate. This filtrate is carried to the renal tubule where water reabsorption occurs, as well as ion and nutrient uptake, a process known as tubular reabsorption. This is also the local of the third component of urine formation, tubular secretion. This is when additional substances in the blood, i.e. drugs, ions, and other wastes, are taken up by the tubule (Amnie, 2018).

Urine is the end result and a majority of its composition is water. It also contains other elements, namely urea, uric acid, trace amounts of amino acids and ions (Amnie, 2018). With all of the ions involved in urine formation, this process assists in the body’s overall pH or acid-base balance.

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