”The Canterbury Tales” by Geoffrey Chaucer creates a unique dialogue when it comes to determining the genre. In this lesson, we will examine the levels of depth created when the author crafts this story and its effect on determining the genre.
Genre in Literature
It can be difficult to choose a book at random and it is similarly difficult to choose a movie. This is where genre can help viewers choose a movie or book.Genre is the type or category of a story. It places it within a specific context. This helps the reader or watcher recognize some of the parameters the author may make.
Geoffrey Chaucer makes use of several genres in The Canterbury Tales. Chaucer sets up the tales as a larger story of pilgrims on their way to Canterbury and back. Each character tells one or more tales, each falling into their own genre. Told in Middle English,–the common language at the time in England–Chaucer lays out a sprawling fiction told in prose and poetry within the romance, dream vision, and satire genres.
Getting Started with the separate stories in Canterbury Tales
Before jumping into the tales, let’s first review the layout of Chaucer’s classic work. The Canterbury Tales begins with a prologue which introduces the frame of the book.
It explains there will be several stories told by characters on the way to Canterbury, as well as brief introductions to the separate characters. Some characters have introductions or prologues whereas others get right into telling their story. With each story, the reader is made to feel like a fellow pilgrim on the journey who overhears the character beginning the story.
Each is characteristic of the individual who tells it.
Romance in Canterbury Tales
When we think of romance, we typically think of love. However, as used in Chaucer’s time and throughout most of literature, romance in writing applies to both love and war, usually in a refined setting.
It typically involves idealized behavior or events. Women are beautiful and remote, men try to impress them with bold acts, and the love never seems to go as planned.Several of the tales in The Canterbury Tales are in whole or part romances: The Knight’s Tale, The Squire’s Tale, Sir Thopas, The Wife of Bath’s Tale, The Merchant’s Tale, The Franklin’s Tale, The Book of the Duchess, Anelida and Arcite, The Parliament of Birds, Troilus and Criseyde, and The Prologue to the Legend of Good Women all use characteristics of romances.
Dream Vision in Canterbury Tales
Dream visions are stories in which the narrator or protagonist receives guidance in a dream from God or a god, the devil, or natural causes. A dream vision usually follows this timeline:
- The dreamer falls asleep during some crisis or problematic time
- The dreamer enters a beautiful place
- The dreamer encounters a guide
- Something causes the dreamer to wake up before all the meaning can be taken from the dream
Chaucer uses the dream vision in several of his tales to provide guidance for his characters.
Chaucer usually added a book by a classical author, a mystery, and a moral or social reference.
Satire in The Canterbury Tales
Another important genre in The Canterbury Tales is satire. Satire is the use of humor to ridicule and expose people’s problems, often in the context of contemporary politics.
Satire resounds in Chaucer’s tales and provides several layers of biting critiques on society.Some characters are dramatically exaggerated to provide humor and expose the problems. For example, instead of having fought in one or a handful of battles, the knight seems to have fought in every battle in the past twenty years. Wives are supposed to be desirable, so the Wife of Bath is exaggerated to have had five husbands and several lovers in addition.
Sometimes the character or expectation of a character’s personality will affect the order of their storytelling with some characters interrupting others. This humor draws the reader further into the story. While laughing at the antics of some characters, like the prancing cock chanticleer ruling the roost, the reader also begins to laugh at the ridiculousness of social order.
In Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales, the author tells a humorous set of stories through prose and poetry. To better understand the story, the reader must explore the genres, or categories, which operate within it.
The frame story or a story within a story, allows Chaucer to unite the many smaller ‘tales’ in his collection into a cohesive whole. The author touches on romance, or idealized views of love and war. Chaucer also works with dream visions which use dreams to reveal important messages.Chaucer also makes use of satire, or the humorous use of ridicule to make a political point.
He uses the perspectives of the individual storytellers to showcase different problematic aspects of society.