Thedesire for intelligent systems was just a dream until the first computer wasdeveloped. Early computers could manipulate large databases effectively byfollowing a prescribed algorithms.
Later on, questions like if computers canthink started popping. Engineersand scientists since that time have been trying to build machines and systemsthat can think and that we can call ‘intelligent’ and by intelligent here wemean that those systems should be able to understand and learn things and thiscan be done by experience and by experience we mean here that they have to analyzethousands of examples to build an algorithm to achieve whatever they were builtfor. And now we can define the intelligent systems as systems embedded withinternet connected computer that can perform a series of analytical procedures toachieve what the system is made for. Artificialintelligence:Artificialintelligence is a science that has defined it’s goal to make machines do thingsthat would require intelligence if done by humans. Thehistory of AI was founded by three generations: I. Thebirth of artificial intelligence (1943-1956)Thefirst work in the field of AI was presented by Warren McCulloch and WalterPitts.
McCulloch and his co-author Walter Pitts did a research on the centralnervous system resulted in the first major contribution to AI: a model ofneurons of the brain.Another founderof AI was John McCarthy. He worked after graduation from Princeton in DartmouthCollege. He started working in the summer workshop and made some researchesinterested in the study of machine intelligence, artificial neural nets andautomata theory. Although there were just 10 researches, this workshop gavebirth to a new science called artificial intelligence.
II. The riseof artificial intelligence (1956-1960s)JohnMcCarthy defined one of the oldest programming languages the high-levellanguage LISP. Later, he presented a paper in which he proposed a programcalled the Advice Taker. The program was designed to accept new axioms(knowledge) in different areas without being reprogrammed. This program was thefirst complete knowledge-based system incorporating the central principles of knowledgerepresentation and reasoning.
Anotherambitious project of this era was The General Problem Solver (GPS).It’s purposewas to simulate human problem-solving methods by separating the problem-solvingtechniques from the data.Inconclusion, 1960’s was the time when they used general methods to find asolution to the problem. Such approaches are now referred to as weak methods. However,that time was also the time when AI attracted many great scientists whointroduced fundamental new ideas to this field. III. Theimpact of reality (1960s-1970s)Since the mid 1950’s, the main purpose was tobuild all-purpose intelligent machines that can exceed human intelligence bythe year of 2000.However, those claims were too optimistic,because very few AI programs could demonstrate some level of machineintelligence in one or two toy problems and almost no AI project could dealwith a wider selection of tasks or more difficult real-world problems.