According to Aaby, Most hospital studies of measles mortality suggest that high case-fatality ratios are associated with malnutrition. However, no community study has documented this association. On the contrary, several community studies from Africa and Asia have found no relation between nutritional status and risk of severe or fatal measles. Instead, overcrowding and intensive exposure may be more important determinants of measles mortality.Clustering of several cases in the family and/or intensive exposure were associated with high measles mortality in community studies in West Africa, Bangladesh, and England. Thus sociocultural factors that concentrate many susceptible children in the home may increase the case-fatality ratio in measles. Conversely, this ratio will be lower when measles cases are dispersed. Siblings in rural areas, where long intervals separate epidemics, run a higher risk of contracting measles simultaneously than do their urban counterparts.
Measles vaccination increases herd immunity and diminishes the clustering of several cases in a family. Vaccination may therefore reduce mortality even among unvaccinated children who contract measles. Crowding and intensive exposure may partly explain regional and historical variations in measles mortality; community studies suggest that mortality is high when a high proportion of measles patients have secondary cases (acquired through exposure at home). 1 According to Department of Health entomologist, Norma Joson, malaria is caused by four species of the Plasmodium parasite, namely P. alciparum, P.
vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale. Only the first two are endemic to the Philippines. The parasite is primarily transmitted by the two species of Anopheles mosquito native to this country, the Anopheles flavirostris complex and the Anopheles maculatus complex. In the Philippines over 70 percent of malaria infections are due to P.
falciparum infection. Only the female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria, as only female mosquitoes bite humans to take a blood meal.The Anopheles are mostly found in the clear running water of mountain streams, either well exposed to the sun or along a more shady edge, in seepage water, springs and shallow wells.
2 Based on the health experts, the medical term pneumonia actually covers over 50 respiratory illnesses which concern the function of the lung’s air sacs, or alveoli. There are a number of irritants which can cause pneumonia to develop, including bacteria, viruses, mycoplasm, fungi and chemicals.One of these irritants manages to bypass the body’s natural defenses, an infection forms in the deepest part of the lungs. As the body releases white blood cells to fight off this infection, fluids fill up the alveoli and bronchi. It is this fluid build-up and subsequent illness that many of us consider pneumonia. 3 According to the DOH Secretary, Dr.
Manuel Dayrit, a total of 2,778 cases of the said intestinal infection were recorded in just 45 days (from May 31 to July16, 2004).From the studies on the medical diagnoses of 81 cases, Dayrit concluded that infectious (transmittable) cholera disease was the main cause of the epidemic. Cholera is caused by a bacterial strain known a Vibrio comma. The said bacterium lives in victim’s feces, urine, and vomit and may be transmitted in contaminated water and food. Cholera is caused by a bacterial strain known a Vibrio comma. The said bacterium lives in victim’s feces, urine, and vomit and may be transmitted in contaminated water and food.
4 According to Dr.Yolanda Oliveros, director of the National Center for Disease Prevention and Control (NCDPC), said the National Government has also launched its own analysis for the year 2000 on handwashing practice among adults and children. Among adults, 90 percent have said they wash their hands before eating but less than 50 percent of children below 12 years old adhere to the practice. She said the study also indicated that only 20 percent of children below five years old, 37 percent among adolescents, 44 percent of adults, and 50 percent of older people wash their hands after they use the toilet. 5