“Technology is just a tool. In terms of getting the kids working together and motivating them, the teacher is most important.” – Bill Gates
Blended learning, a new approach in educational planning, is defined as an applying more than one method, strategy, technique or media in education. Today’s, due to the development of infrastructure of Internet networks and the access of most of the students, the Internet can be utilized along with traditional and conventional methods of training. Training is known as an agent of change and progress in human. Improvement of educational quality has been considered in medical fields, and its importance is growing gradually. The blended revolution that has empowered students in developing nations is just now spreading to developing countries with improved internet access; students have opportunities to experience blended and mobile learning. Blended and mobile learning can assist countries with increased educational access and online providers opportunities to reach new international markets. Technology has furled the distance – learning environment from correspondence courses, to radio and TV to videoconferencing, to online and now to blended and mobile learning.
Blended learning is an interactive, student-centered approach that integrates engaging online content with the best features of classroom interaction. This approach also personalizes student learning and includes several forms of assessment for students and instructor. Several definitions of blended learning were proposed by several researchers. It should be noted that there are other names being used for blended learning such as hybrid learning, integrated learning, multi-method learning, or mixed method learning (Node, 2001).
Al-Zoubi and Bani- Doumi (2013) summarized the factors which contribute to the success of blended learning as follows:
• Communicating and guidance: the learner in this method doesn’t know when will he need help, and the equipment, tools and applications needed in order to examine his skills, so, blended learning ought to incorporate instructions concerning the behaviors, activities and expectations, as well as methods for diagnosis and tasks recommended for the learner and written and well specified roles.
• Collective work: in blended learning, every individual ought to be persuaded that participation of all students as a team, in which each member has specific roles, is important.
• Encouraging innovative work: blended learning encourages self-learning and group learning, because the technological means available in blended learning makes this possible, through class interactions which encourage innovation and improves work.
• Flexible choices: blended learning enables students to access information and answer questions regardless of time and place, and the previous learning of the student. Thus, blended learning should incorporate several flexible choices which enable students to find those suitable to their preferences.
• Participation of the students in choosing the suitable blend: the teacher ought to assist his students in choosing the suitable blend (online learning, individual work, traditional lecturing, reading printed materials, e-mail). The teacher motivates students as well, and ensures that they choose activities suitable for the achievement of mastery and maximum efficiency.
• Continuous communication: a quick means of communication should be available for both learners and instructors for guidance all the time, and network communication among students should be available for the purposes of sharing information, solving problems and sharing applications.
• Repetition: repetition is one of the most important features of blended learning, and one of the factors which contribute to its success, because it enables learners to receive the same message from several sources, in different forms and at different times. Thus, a lesson can be delivered in a traditional manner, then through the web. And supervisors of the program can hold a seminar which tackles the topic another time, and video conference about the same topic can be used, in addition to the use of chatting and e-mails and Self-administered exams can be applied also. All those repetitions enrich the topic, and meet the needs of learners. What is important is that all those repetitions and various versions ought to be of a high level technology.
1.1 SCIENCE LEARNING
Science education is designs to share scientific data and events with students who are not part of the scientific community but have to benefit from scientific understanding. It is a way to make students scientifically literate about general concepts that pertain to scientific discovery. Science education usually includes the subject areas of physical, life, earth and space sciences. The aim of teaching any school subject must always be directed towards achieving the aims of education in general. The teaching of science as a subject must, therefore contribute to the all-round development of the child so that they comes out as socially useful and efficient citizen of the modern scientific world. According to Kothari commission “The destiny of the country is being shaped in the class rooms”. To achieve the designed goals and to meet the situation in a suitable way the teacher has to play a very vital role in educational institution. Teaching is considered both an art and a science.
Successful and effective teaching requires two basic things. The teacher should be competent to teach the subject allotted to him/her and at the same time he/she should follow new techniques of teaching to make the learning fruitful and interesting. Teaching and learning process forms an integral part of education. The effectiveness of teaching and learning could be measured in terms of the level of achievement of students in the subject of study and the effectiveness of teaching and learning depends upon both the teacher and the student. To increase the level of achievement in any subject, the teacher and the students need to have knowledge of blended learning to be employed. The new educational policy suggested measure to redesign the science curriculum so as to make it related to life. To improve the quality and effectiveness of teaching and learning in schools must look into what teachers and students do in classrooms. During this period the subject was usually taught as general science in most of the states. However, at the secondary stage science was an optional subject, which was offered either as a combination of physical science and biology or as physics, chemistry and biology. The syllabus of science and textbooks were prescribed by the respective state agencies. The content and process of science teaching in schools, therefore, varied from one state to another.
The major objectives identified were:
• To acquire the knowledge of chemistry.
• To develop scientific attitudes such as objectives outlook, integrity, accuracy and precision, avoiding hasty conclusion on insufficient data.
The technology modules introduced at this stage should be more advanced than at the upper primary stage. The modules should involve design, implementation using the school workshop, if possible, and testing the efficacy of the modules by qualitative and quantitative parameters. The various components of the science curriculum indicated above should be integrated imaginatively.
1.2 LEARNING CHEMISTRY:
Chemistry is one of the most important branches of science; it enables learners to understand what happened around them. Because chemistry topics are generally related to or based on the structure of matter, chemistry proves a difficult subject for many students. Chemistry curricula commonly incorporate many abstract concepts, which are central to further learning in both chemistry and other sciences (Taber, 2002). These abstract concepts are important because further chemistry/science concepts or theories cannot be easily understood if these underpinning concepts are not sufficiently grasped by the student (Zoller, 1990; Nakhleh, 1992; Ayas & Demirba?, 1997; Coll & Treagust, 2001a; Nicoll, 2001). The abstract nature of chemistry along with other content learning difficulties (e.g. the mathematical nature of much chemistry) means that chemistry classes require a high-level skill set (Fensham, 1988; Zoller, 1990; Taber, 2002).
Chemistry is often regarded as a difficult subject, an observation that sometimes repels learners from continuing with studies in chemistry. With the establishment of new syllabuses in chemistry for secondary schools in different countries in the last decayed. One of the essential characteristics of chemistry is the constant interplay between the macroscopic and microscopic levels of thought, and it is this aspect of chemistry (and physics) learning that represents a significant challenge to novices (Bradley & Brand,1985). In his early study, Johnstone (1974) reported that the problem areas in the subject, from the pupils’ point of view, persisted well into university education, the most difficult topics being the mole, chemical formulae and equations, and, in organic chemistry, condensations and hydrolysis.
Over a number of years, many of the above difficult areas was subjected to systematic study to try to identify the point of difficulty and to seek common factors among the nature of these difficulties (Johnstone et al., 1977; Duncan ; Johnstone, 1973; Kellett ; Johnstone, 1974; Garforth et al., 1976). Johnstone and El-Banna (1986) suggested a predictive model that enabled them to raise and test an important hypothesis,which was then applied to chemistry learning as well as to learning in other science disciplines.
Chemistry, by its very nature, is highly conceptual. While much can be acquired by rote learning (this often being reflected by efficient recall in examination questions), real understanding demands the bringing together of conceptual understandings in a meaningful way. Thus, while students show some evidence of learning and understanding in examination papers, researchers find evidence of misconceptions, rote learning, and of certain areas of basic chemistry which are still not understood even at degree-level (Johnstone, 1984; Bodner, 1991): What is taught is not always what is learned.
1.3 LEARNING DIFFICULTIES IN CHEMISTRY:
Many students from secondary schools to universities in many countries struggle to learn chemistry and many do not succeed (Reid.L.,2008). Research has shown that many students do not correctly understand fundamental chemistry concepts (Kamisah,O.,;Nur,S.,2013). And also many of the scientifically incorrect ideas held by the students go unchanged from the early years of the schooling to university and sometimes beyond (Sozbiler,M.;Pynarbapy,A.N.C.,T.,2010). By not fully and appropriately understanding fundamental concepts, many students have trouble understanding the more advanced concepts that build upon these fundamental concepts (Thomas, P.L. ,1997) . Many high school and university students experience difficulties with fundamental ideas in chemistry (Carson,J.,; Watson, E. M,2002). Despite the importance of the foundation of chemistry, most students emerge from introductory courses with very limited understanding of the subject (Ochs, R.S.,1996) .
Chemistry had been regarded as a difficult subject for students by many researchers, teachers and science educators because of the abstract nature of many chemical concepts, teaching styles applied in class, lack of teaching aids and the difficulty of the language of chemistry. Chemistry being one of the most important branches of science enables learners to understand what happened around them. Because chemistry topics are generally related to or based on the structure of matter, chemistry appears to be a difficult subject for many students.
Chemistry curricula commonly incorporate many abstract concepts, which are central to further learning in both chemistry and other sciences. Chemistry concepts or theories can never be easily understood if the underpinning concepts are not sufficiently grasped by the student. The abstract nature of chemistry along with other content learning difficulties (e.g. the mathematical nature of much of chemistry) means that chemistry classes require a high-level skill set. Science inquiry has been highly advocated to be implemented in middle and high school science since the last century. Some common constraints to implement inquiry in Chemistry include inadequate Chemistry knowledge and nature of science, lack of pedagogical skills.
1.4 INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY
In recent years reference to ‘digital technology in the classroom’ (DTC) can be taken to mean digital processing systems that encourage active learning, knowledge construction, inquiry, and exploration on the part of the learners, and which allow for remote communication as well as data sharing to take place between teachers and/or learners in different physical classroom locations. This is an expanded notion of technologies that recognizes their development from mere information delivery systems and also clarifies their role in classrooms in contrast to their wider use across schools and learning centers.
Other Terms Associated with Digital Technologies in the Classroom:
• Bring your own device (BYOD)
Definition : learners bring their own technology into the classroom for use as part of the learning activity.
Example : Mobile phone is used to browse the internet as part of a research Activity.
Benefits : Greater range of technologies available and lower cost to institution
Definition : Learners and teachers create an electronic catalogue of work that tracks their learning journey. This is usually online and often uses multimedia files.
Example : A student portfolio of artwork is presented online through an e-portfolio. This includes scans of their sketches, photographs of displays and visits to galleries, written reflections, narrated videos of the artist (learner) at work and an audio logbook.
Benefits : Provides a way of quickly and seamlessly presenting a wide variety of material in different formats including details of process.
• Flipped classroom
Definition : Learners discover new content before the lesson from online videos Or resources and then apply this knowledge in more personalized work in the classroom.
Example : Learners watch a video at home about how sedimentary rocks are transformed into metamorphic rocks. In class they work in groups to collaboratively create a diagram explaining this process of transformation.
Benefits : More time for activities that promote deeper understanding and Reflection.
• Personal Learning Network (PLN)
Definition : A PLN is an individual’s loose collection of links with other people or resources. The aim of such a network is to facilitate an exchange of ideas that supports learning.
Example : Links can be through, for example: online interest groups for example on Twitter and/or online and face-to-face courses.
Benefits : Access to a wide range of perspectives and expertise beyond the confines of the physical institution.
• Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)
Definition : A VLE is an e-learning education system that is web-based, but modelled on conventional face-to-face education. It provides access to courses, course content, assessments, homework, links to external resources etc.
Example : Moodle Blackboard.
Benefits : Easy way to collate and organise courses and information
flexibility of access.
• Interactive Whiteboards (IWB)
It allows images from a computer to be displayed through a digital projector, onto a large usually wall-mounted) board. Users can interact with the content on the board using fingers or a stylus.
• Software Applications (Apps)
They are designed to operate on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.
• Web 2.0 :
It refers to the second generation of the World Wide Web. Web 2.0 includes features and functionality that were not available before, for example. podcasts, blogs, wikis, RSS (Rich Site Summary – used for updating regularly changing web content), social networking and tagging.
Benefits of Digital Technologies in the Classroom
The potential benefits of DTC are that it can foster dialogic and emancipatory practice. Dialogic practice is that in which students are active, engaged and empowered participants in a conversation from which learning emerges.
? Different technologies can improve learning by augmenting and connecting learning activities
? Digital technology can often also be exciting for learners and offers a potentially more engaging alternative. At the same time it is important to be aware that some learners may be less confident in learning with digital technologies and steps need to be taken to ensure equality of access.
? Digital technology offers immediate feedback for both the learner and the teacher.
Term Definition Example Benefit(s) Risk(s)
Teachers Support the Use of Digital Technologies in the Classroom
Teachers can make the best use of technology in the classroom by developing their awareness of a range of digital technologies and considering carefully both how and why they can be used to support students’ learning. Effective selection of software and devices is only part of the story. The consideration of what learning will be achieved and how the technology may help is fundamental to its effective deployment.
The SAMR (Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition) model developed by Dr Ruben Puentedura is a useful reference when considering the implementation of technology in the classroom. The educational technology often follow as they integrate their teaching and learning with technology.
1.5 INTRODUCTION TO BLENDED LEARNING
Whitlock and Jelfe (2003) proposed three definitions for blended learning as follows: the complete integration of traditional learning and internet-assisted learning; the integration of instructional means and the use of educational technology in learning; and the integration of several instructional methods regardless of technology.
Bersin (2003) defines blended learning as a modern method which depends on technology and the use of instructional methods suitable for solving the problems related to class management as well as the learning-directed activities, which require accuracy and mastery. It can be concluded that blended learning is an instructional method that integrates computer technology and the traditional methods familiar to teachers.
Salameh (2005) suggests that blended learning is the acceptable alternative of e-Learning, and which creates higher returns and requires lower costs and is the most developed modern learning method. Blended learning can be defined as the process of blending the traditional roles of teachers with the roles of the e-teacher in classes. Thus it is a learning which integrates traditional and electronic learning.
Al-Khan (2005) suggests blended learning is a strategy that incorporates both the direct learning through the internet as well as indirect learning. Direct e-learning usually incorporates the use of intra-and internet, while indirect learning is the one applied in traditional classes. An example of this type of learning is a learning program which provides educational materials and research sources on the web, while the guidance of the teacher and training sessions provide an essential instructional means.
According to Bonk ; Graham (2006) the most important features of blended learning include decreasing the cost of learning significantly, face to face interaction, supporting the humanistic aspects and social relations among learners, and between them and the teacher, the flexibility required for the fulfillment of the individual needs, the learning styles of students from different backgrounds, ages and regions, using the technological development in designing, implementation and practice, enrichment of knowledge, improving the quality of teaching process, learning outcomes and the efficiency of teachers, as well as the educated discourse among the various cultures and making use of the new developments in sciences.
The chemistry faculty who have taught both lecture and hybrid formats have noticed an increase in student preparedness. The research evidence from the student course questionnaire, combined with the evidence that the more time students spent using the blended learning class guides, the better they scored on their final exam, supports the supposition that the guides are an integral component in creating this successful hybrid course. However, the team realizes that because the traditional lecture course did not have any means of capturing the amount of time on task students spent outside the classroom, it is impossible to directly calculate and compare the impact of the guides on the blended learning format versus the lecture. Additionally, the redesign team realizes that other factors in the Chemical Principles hybrid course redesign also contributed to student success and retention. In the future, the team plans to examine the extent to which the use of clickers, multimedia, and online quizzes contributed to enhancing student success in the course.
The blended learning class guides provide more than a detailed syllabus or simple online study guide. The integration of instructor-guided materials, practice exercises, and interactive, multimedia tutorials, games, and simulations in the documented guides format has shown promise in assisting lower level, general education chemistry students in better understanding course content, which has led to improved student test scores and course retention. While not every aspect of a class guide may be appropriate for all hybrid courses, this type of guide could be replicated, customized, and utilized in a variety of hybrid or online course learning environments to further enhance student achievement and retention. The improved student success and retention, the faculty in the chemistry department have committed to teaching the General Chemistry course in the blended format. This has created course consistency among all the sections because the students receive identical materials each class day and take a variation of the same exam. The time spent preparing for the class by individual instructors has also dramatically decreased because the lecture has been replaced with in-class problem-solving activities and the online blended learning class guides. The instructors collaborate to ensure that the problems given to students are appropriate and relevant, but no individual instructor is responsible for the whole course. Finally, after the module a short quiz will be given in order to gauge the level of comprehension gained from the online module. A key element of this project is that there are two sets of questions with different types of construction. The pre/post quiz scores will be analyzed to try and see if one question was superior to the other. Driscoll (2002) identifies four different concepts in blended learning
• To combine or mix modes of web-based technology (e.g., live virtual classroom, self-paced instruction, collaborative learning, streaming video, audio, and text) to accomplish an educational goal.
• To combine different teaching methods based on multiple theories (e.g., constructivism, behaviourism, cognitivism) to produce an optimal learning outcome with or without instructional technology.
• To combine any form of instructional technology (e.g., videotape, CD-ROM, webbased training, film) with face-to-face instructor-led training.
• To mix or combine instructional technology with actual job tasks in order to create a harmonious effect of learning and working.
Learner characteristics/background and blended learning effectiveness
Studies indicate that student characteristics such as gender play significant roles in academic achievement but no study examines performance of male and female as an important factor in blended learning effectiveness. It has again been noted that the success of blended learning is highly dependent on experience in internet and computer applications Rigorous discovery of such competences can finally lead to a confirmation of high possibilities of establishing blended learning.
Research agrees that the success of blended learning can largely depend on students as well as teachers gaining confidence and capability to participate in blended learning note in their research that 75% of students and 72% of teachers were lacking in skills to utilize ICT based learning components due to insufficient skills and experience in computer and internet applications and this may lead to failure in e-learning and blended learning. It is therefore pertinent that since the use of blended learning applies high usage of computers, computer competence is necessary to avoid failure in applying technology in education for learning effectiveness.
The learners’ computer literacy and time management are crucial in distance learning contexts and concluded that such factors are meaningful in online classes. This support the learners to posses time management skills and computer skills necessary for effectiveness in e- learning and blended learning. Self-regulatory skills of time management lead to better performance and learners’ ability to structure the physical learning environment leads to efficiency in blended learning environments. Learners need to seek helpful assistance from peers and teachers through chats, email and face-to-face meetings for effectiveness factors such as learners’ hours of employment and family responsibilities are known to impede learners’ process of learning, blended learning. It was also noted that a common factor in failure and learner drop-out is the time conflict which is compounded by issues of family, employment status as well as management support. A study shows that work, family, insufficient time and study load made learners withdraw from online courses.
Learner attitudes to blended learning can result in its effectiveness and these shape behavioral intentions which usually lead to persistence in a learning environment, blended inclusive. The learners’ attitudes towards blended learning are success factor for these learning environments. Learner performance by age and gender in blended learning has been found to indicate no significant differences between male and female learners and different age groups. This implies that the potential for blended learning to be effective exists and is unhampered by gender or age differences.
Blended learning success factors:
The success of blended learning is based on a number of factors that must be met and taken into account when designing and implementing blended learning. Baldwin-Evans (2006), Almousa (2005) have all indicated a number of these factors, including:
• Good planning: includes determining the function and role of both the teacher and the learner, and to identify how to use e-learning tools by both teachers and learners accurately.
• Providing hardware: by ensuring the availability of various devices used in a blended learning environment, both for learners or at the educational institution.
• The diversity of sources: the blended learning environment enables learners to access different information and resources, regardless of place or time.
• Ensure learner readiness: This is done by ensuring their skills levels in the use of the computer and Internet, and technological culture.
• Training: train learners on how to use the e-learning communication tools via the internet, and how to access the learning resources through these tools.
• Providing support and assistance: this begins at the end of the training. Some essentials of a new skill may not be used directly in the training programme, and can be easily lost; therefore, it is important to provide learners continued support.
1.6. APPROACHES IN TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS
An approach is an enlightened viewpoint toward teaching. It provides philosophy to the whole process of instruction. The method and technique are just part and parcel of approach. Approach gives the overall wisdom; it provides direction, and set expectations to the entire spectrum of the teaching process. Furthermore, approach sets the general rule or general principle to make learning possible.
Teaching Approach is like a description of how we go about teaching our students. This description explains what we do when we teach.
• The sorts of teaching and learning activities that we have planned (lecture, tutorial, self – directed learning, case study, workshop, workplace learning);
• Ways in which we try to engage students with the subject matter ( provide students with basic facts, relate new knowledge to what students already know, build in interaction, be passionate, be enthusiastic);
• The ways in which we support our students ( encourage questions, set formative assessments and provide constructive feedback).
Advantages of Blended Learning
This means that students can learn the same material at different times and locations (Any Time and Any Place) in addition to face-to-face learning. The learner can have access to the course at any time that is convenient, not just during the specific 2-3 hour period that is set for a traditional course. Also, learners do not have to meet in a lot of face-to-face lessons. That means they can be anywhere. Individuals can log-on at home, work, in the library, in a community learning centre or from their flats and hotels when they travel. Also, asynchronous learning leads to increased reflection time (Heckman and Annabi, 2005).
This means students will learn how they can study independently and individually. They will need to manage themselves as learners, and not to rely on teachers and lecturers to give them direct answers and all the information and, most importantly, to work on achieving intellectual independence. Also, student-centered learning is generally perceived by students as more appealing and puts greater responsibility on the student (McMahon & Oliver, 2001).
Flexibility of attendance
In many of the blended learning classrooms, there is the possibility to study whenever the student chooses to do so. For example, if any student is absent, she may view some of the missed materials at the same time as the rest of the class, even though the student cannot be physically in the classroom. This helps students stay on track and not fall behind, which is especially helpful for students with prolonged sickness or injury that could prevent them from attending class (Alvarez, 2005).
Benefits of face-to-face:
When students have a meeting, they actually will get direct face-to-face interaction with the teachers who can help them. This face-to-face learning where the students and teacher meet in a classroom is very effective in giving learning a personal touch as it were. It is good for workshops, job training and coaching. Also, there will be a sense of ease in communication and information sharing, exercises, immediate feedback on activities.
1.7 DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY BASED BLENDED LEARNING APPROACH
Most psychologists believe that transmitting the Education to Learners is related to educational conditions, and this education should be organized for each learner based on her/his talent and capability. Due to the limitations of the lecture method, many experts emphasize completion of traditional teaching methods and use of blended teaching methods. The Digital Technology Based Blended Learning is actually a combination of two or more methods that use other teaching methods such as multimedia courses, seminars and e-learning, in addition to the present classes. Experience has shown that well-designed hybrid courses enhance student learning and increase student retention, even in large introductory science classes. Digital Technology Based Blended learning class guides present digital content in an instructor-guided and consistent format within a course management system.
Digital learning materials embedded in blended learning consists of interactive multimedia tutorials, podcasts, videos, and simulations to engage students, to influence time on task in their learning and promoting their success. One of the first challenges the investigator faced in creating the online guides was determining the most appropriate technology to use. The principal criteria applied to the selection of technology were: cost and development time, ease of maintaining and updating for faculty, and ease of use for students. The investigator decided that using a combination of mature and simple to use technologies was the most sensible choice, which led to initially designing and developing the guides in Microsoft PowerPoint. Also, it was possible to use this software to create a pleasing design background, develop navigation buttons, and integrate hyperlinks. This PowerPoint class guide would then be saved in a Portable Document Format (PDF). This would allow the instructor to upload a self-contained guide that could not be edited by the students but allowed universal access through a freely available Adobe Reader software package preinstalled on all campus lab computers as well as being downloadable for the students’ personal computers. The blended learning class guides aided in the transformation of a traditional lecture-based course into a successful hybrid course. The class guides enabled the instructors to move much of the lecture content outside the classroom, and as a result allowed them to create a peer-led team-learning environment in class.
The chemistry faculty, through the use of clickers, can more actively guide and engage students in learning in the classroom. A central aim of the guides was to expose the students to important content just prior to the class session covering the material, enabling them to come to class better prepared. The guides encouraged student use in a number of ways, including assigning a few points to the pre-class assignment component, providing a helpful textbook study guide resource, and integrating both multimedia and interactive learning materials that can engage various student learning styles.
1.8 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Chemistry is a search for explanation and interaction of facts and ideas. The major task of professional preparation for Chemistry teacher is to develop a teaching style based on approach which helps students to improve the achievement. Technology and education are a great combination if used together with a right reason and vision. Technology gives students immediate access to an abundance of quality information which leads to learning at much quicker rates than before. This made the investigator to proceed to develop a model to improve the level o achievement in Chemistry. The title of the present study is “EFFECTIVENESS OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY BASED BLENDED LEARNING ON ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.”
1.9 NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Students’ achievement in science is derived from the teachers’ capacity to reach out to deprived children and to create a rich digital technology based blended learning environment for them. Effective teaching depends on the methodology and technology of teaching. Teaching is a process in which the teacher and the students create an interactive environment in such a way that the students become effective and productive learners. So it is necessary to enhance the student’s achievement in science.
1.10 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In this rapidly changing world the challenge of teaching is to help students’ skills which will not become obsolete. Digital technology based blended learning Approach is essential for the twenty first century. They will enable the students to successfully cope up with new situations. Teachers in particular and school in general to refer technology strategies that have been more successful in increasing sustained voluntary attention in classroom settings than approaches that assumes a passive learner. Research on technology strategies has produced effective tools for classroom teaching and learning.
From the perspectives of instructional methodologies digital technology based blended learning approach which involves more efficient use of knowledge and strategies is found desirable. Digital technology based blended learning benefits the learners more than any other learning methodology. This is because a technology environment enhances optimum level of information processing ability. The focalization and concentration of attention is achieved through facilitating consciousness. A case made out in this thesis for the promotion of a Digital technology based blended learning approach and corresponding creation of a technology environment to facilitate effective instruction and learning of science.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
One of the early steps in planning a research work is to review research done previously in the particular area of interest and relevant area quantitative analysis of this research usually gives the worker an indication of the direction. It is very essential for every investigator to be up to date to his own problem already done by others. It is considered the most important pre requisite to actual planning and conducting the study. It avoids the replication of the study of findings to take an advantage from similar or related literature as regards, to methodology, techniques of data collection, procedure adopted and conclusions drawn.
It provides as source of problem of study, analogy may be drawn for identifying and selecting his own problem of research. The researcher formulates his hypotheses on the basis of review of literature. It also provides the rationale for the study. The results and findings of the study can also be discussed at length.
OBJECTIVES OF REVIEW OF LITERATURE
It provides theories, ideas, explanations or hypotheses which may prove useful in the formulation of a new problem. It indicates whether the evidence already available solves the problem adequately without requiring further investigation. It avoids replication. It provides the sources for hypothesis. The researcher can formulate research hypotheses on the basis of available studies.
It suggests method, procedure, sources of data and statistical techniques appropriate to the solution of the problem. It locates comparative data and findings useful in the interpretation and discussion of results. The conclusions drawn in the related studies may be significantly compared and may be used as the subject for the findings of the study. It helps in developing experts and general scholarship of the investigator in the area investigated.
It contributes towards the accurate knowledge of the evidence or literature in one’s area of activity is a good avenue towards making oneself. This knowledge is an asset ever afterwards, whether one is employed in an institution of higher learning or a research organization.
The main purpose of reviewing the literature is to understand the previous work done in the relevant field on “Effectiveness of Digital Technology based Blended Learning on Achievement in Chemistry among high school students.”
SOURCES AND TYPES OF RESEARCH LITERATURE
Journals, Books, Biographies , Conference Papers , Autobiographies, Memoirs, Letters, Interviews, Novels, Poems, Stories, Plays, Encyclopedias , Dictionaries , Literary Handbooks , Book-length Bibliographies, Blogs, YouTube , E-mail ,Primary sources, secondary sources and tertiary sources form the different sources and types of research literature.
The studies have been collected in relation to Multimedia related studies , Technology related studies and Science achievement studies.
STUDIES RELATED TO DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY
The studies were undertaken mainly to find out participants’ perceptions on various aspects of digital technology , to identify factors contributing to the effectiveness of digital technology and to analyze interactions occurring in on learning environment. In addition to this, studies were undertaken to find the effect of digital technology in terms of problem solving, self regulated learning and achievement.
Escanero and Aldo (1987) developed CAL in Biochemistry. He found that the student’s performance is higher level when using CAL than traditional materials.
Thomson S.V and Riding R.J (1990) found out that the animation facilitates learning have a positive effect on the knowledge of the students who study mathematics.
Kulik and Kulik (1991) state that Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) method is more effective than traditional method. CAL produce positive effects in their learning.
Kieras (1992) found that the effects of animated and static graphics as students ability to understand the operation of an energy system, the star track phases Bank. He concluded that the animated graphic performed significantly better than traditional method.
Hafstetter (1992) States that Computer based teaching is a suitable educational environment for over discipline and that the user friendly nature.
Williamson VM, Abraham MR (1995) conducted a research by which it is stated that learning Chemistry through animations can increase the rate of learning.
Callaway, J. A. (1997). a study on The impact of using the computerized program of a multimedia structure on students’ cognitive traits and the educational methods which were ignored in the traditional method. The study showed a statistically-significant difference in the average marks of the experimental group and the control group in favor of the experimental group which studied using the multimedia meth od.
Allen (1998) conducted a study to find out the efficiency of multimedia software in the academic achievement of a sample from Texas University in the microorganism curriculum, their knowledge retention, and their attitudes toward using multimedia computers in teaching the microorganism course. The study sample comprised 76 students, divided equally into two groups: control and experimental. The study showed a statistically-significant difference in the average marks of the experimental group and the control group in favor of the experimental group which studied using the multimedia method.
Sue Bennett and Lori Lockyer (1999) conducted a study on The Impact of Digital Technologies on Teaching and Learning in K-12 Education. This study found that the impact of digital technologies on teaching and learning in K-12 education in Australia and internationally indicates changes in a number of key areas, including teachers’ and learners’ perceptions, learner motivation, teaching and learning activities, learning outcomes, access and infrastructure, technology uptake and professional development.
Mcloughlin and Hollingworth (2001) conducted a research on developing first year science students’ problem solving skills through online learning and found that students’ problem solving skills can be developed significantly by taking a proactive online approach and by designing an environment specifically for problem solving.
Pandya and Chaudhary (2000) studied the effectiveness of CAL package by comparing face to face mode. The pre test and post test design approach was followed in this research. It was found that the achievement scores of the students learnt through CAL were better than face to face mode. It was concluded that CAL has the potential for improving student’s achievement scores. The researchers further suggested that the teaching with CAL has higher positive effect on achievement of students in learning. The research concluded that to use innovative methods of teaching by the teacher which keep the students attentive in teaching learning process.
Smith and Woody (2000) conducted a study on Interactive effect of multimedia instruction and learning styles. This study was found that multimedia benefits students with a high visual orientation.
Richard Mayer and Chandier P (2001) defines multimedia as the presentation of material using both words and pictures. By words, he means that the material is presented in verbal form, such as using printed or spoken text. By pictures, he means that the material is presented in pictorial form, such as using static graphics, including illustrations, graphs, photos, or maps, or using dynamic graphics, including animation or video. This definition is broad enough to cover each of the multimedia scenarios, ranging from multimedia encyclopedia entries to textbook lessons. For example, in a multimedia encyclopedia, the words can be presented as on screen text or as narration, and the pictures can be presented as graphics or animation or video. Multimedia is an umbrella term and technically all exchanges that happen via computers can be encompassed as an occurrence of Multimedia. The definition of multimedia which he used here is narrower than some other definitions. A border definition could say that multimedia is the presentation of material in more than tne form. Instead, Richard Mayer has opted to limit the definition to just two forms verbal and pictorial because the research base in cognitive psychology is most relevant to this distinction. Thus, what he calls multimedia learning is more accurately called dual code or dual channel learning.
V.Nimavathi and R.Gnanadevan (2008) conducted a study on Impact of multimedia programme in teaching science. This study found that Multimedia can present the biological information concepts so as to develop generic skills. The students can get a live vision of life’s aspects and scientific factors.
Conrad (2002) explored how learners perceived themselves as participants in online learning activities. The results indicate that online learners worked hard and continuously negotiated to build community feeling while engaged in online learning.
Myers, B.E., ; Dyer, J.E. (2002). found that student learning styles, patterns of learning, and characteristics did not have an effect on achievement measured by class grade in the web-based courses.
Whitesel (2002) investigated the impact of instruction on the use of online help on computer novices’ ability to complete unfamiliar computer tasks and the result showed that performance of treatment group on unfamiliar tasks did not significantly improve over the control group.
Dill (2003) investigated undergraduate business students’ perception of their critical thinking skills development in an online business information management course. Participants identified the factors which enhance and kinder critical thinking skills development through an online course.
Du .Y (2003) conducted an evaluation of the effect of learning styles and computer competency on students’ satisfaction in web based distance learning environments and found that there is a significant difference among the students belonging to different learning styles with respect to their satisfaction level when the subjects differ with regard to computer competency. A significant correlation was found between computer competency and students’ satisfaction levels within web based courses for accommodating styles and no significant results were found in other learning styles.
Fite (2003) studied influence of learner-learner interaction in online classes and found that there is no correlation between cognitive style and quality of learner-learner interaction. Interaction elements during online discussions do not indicate the content of discussion, but do indicate how the discussion is taking place and students have opinions on how their experiences in online courses should impact online course design, particularly in terms of knowing the learner and communication.
Kubasko (2003) compared the impact of real time internet experiments versus interactive asynchronous replays of experiments on high school students’ science concepts and attitude. The result of the study revealed that the students’ investigations using the internet and stored replay experiences can assist science educators in providing students with more inquiry based experiences.
LaPrise (2003) examined the patterns among computer mediated instruction, student learning styles and student achievement. The results showed that no patterns were found in the data which indicated a relationship between perceptual modality preferences and achievement when students are exposed to computer-mediated instruction.
Mayer, R. E., (2003). states that animations are most effective when text is adjacent to important structures and is spoken simultaneously to reinforce the learning process. He with found that animations and graphics with a spoken or written narrative are more effective than those lacking a narrative.
Pstein (2003) studied the effects of web-based versus web-enhanced learning on school students’ learning outcomes and self regulatory skills. His findings indicated that the type of instruction did not account a significant amount of variance in predicting students’ achieved learning outcomes and their self regulatory skills.
Rozalind G. Muir-Herzig (2004) conducted a study on Technology and its impact in the classroom. This study suggests that for technology to be effective and make changes in at-risk students’ grades and attendance, schools must be prepared for technology use in the classroom. Leaders need to develop a model that would include a shared vision, entire school community involvement, specific training for staff and time for the training, a full time technology director and time for the staff to communicate and share among peers for technology to be an effective tool in the classroom curriculum.
Williams (2003) conducted a comparative study on transforming an educational graduate degree program from traditional classroom instruction to online based instruction and found that time was a major factor in developing and teaching an online course and student learning centered more on required participation rather than traditional faculty lectures. The study revealed that students enjoyed online learning but had to be more self motivated due to the increased demands of online learning. Overall, the online experience was as enjoyable as traditional classes for most participants but more demanding. Faculty members were satisfied with the quality of online work and students liked the flexibility of online courses.
Brewer and Klein (2004) studied small group learning in an online asynchronous environment and the results indicated no significant differences in achievements by type of interdependence, or by affiliation motive. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation, indicating that participants with higher number of interactions attained higher posttest scores. Participants in reward groups had significantly higher agreement with several attitude statements that reflected benefit from working with others and being able to generate better ideas in groups.
Cox (2004) examined learning styles and student attitudes toward the use of technology in higher and adult education courses. With regard to attitude towards the use of technology, data showed that the subjects viewed one-to-one communication (email), multimedia (PowerPoint), course website and internet when used by the Professor in class as more positively facilitating course objectives. The use of DVDs and music CDs were seen as a distraction from achieving course objectives.
Desai, Beena Y. (2004) conducted A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Teaching through the Traditional Method and the Multimedia approach in the Subject of Home Science. It is an experimental study which has employed experimental group and control group design. The sample of the study is constituted of 98 students of B.A. first year home science (2001-2002) of Smt. J.P. Shroff Arts College, Valsad. The students were found to have favorable opinions towards the multimedia approach. The study has found the relative efficacy of teaching through the traditional method and the multimedia approach in the subject of Home Science, particularly, Proteins.
Hao (2004) explored students’ attitude towards four types of interactions in online learning: instructional, affective, collaborative, and vicarious. Data were collected through online questionnaires and interviews from a sample of 182 students enrolled in online courses at a community college in US. The research indicated that students had significant differences in their attitudes towards the four types of interactions. Learning style was not a significant predictor of students’ attitude towards interactions. Learner’s attitudes towards the four types of interactions were related to course satisfaction and the four attitudes significantly predicted course satisfaction.
Isman et.al. (2004) conducted a study on the developments in information and communication technologies all applications of the instruction start to have tendency toward technology based instruction instead of directed teacher centered instruction. This study was found that computers are the main instructional support to the learning and teaching process. Technological tools provide the equal standards, opportunities and easy to path for the successful understanding and also meaningful learning for students.
Kaur (2004) conducted a study on social construction of knowledge and its relationship to academic achievement using asynchronous conferencing tool. The study analyzed the online transcripts of participation, interaction and knowledge construction in undergraduate courses. Course syllabi and policies set up by the instructors were used to examine the structure of these web based courses and found a relationship between grades assigned and knowledge construction categories for two of the three online courses.
Li (2004) conducted a research on the impact of online project and indicated a positive impact on students’ learning in history. However, the data did not show significant difference in students’ attitudes towards computer technology and history learning. Most of the students “enjoyed working on the project” and believed “computer technology was useful” and they “learned not only the local history, but also computer technology” and they “learned much more from researching on the internet than from the text book”.
Murray (2004) conducted a research on exploration of kinesthetic learning modality and virtual reality in a web environment and used both qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the kinesthetic learning style preferences of online Brazillian English language learners and to obtain their reactions to specific virtual reality formats on the web. The study revealed that the kinesthetic learning style was strongly preferred by the online participants and the other perceptual modalities were also preferred, but to a somewhat lesser degree.
Otto (2004) revealed that a homepage can be very beneficial to the students of a seventh grade social studies class. Students enjoy using the homepage in their classes because it is more fun when they can utilize computer technology, it is easier to find the required information, it keeps them organized, and it allows them to work on their assignments outside of the classroom.
Prilluck (2004) compared the effect of two technologically different methods – traditional teaching and web-assisted method of instruction on student responses and found that students in the web assistedcourse were more satisfied with their learning experiences and these students felt that the course helped them develop their skills in critical thinking.
Roh (2004) conducted a study on designing accessible Web Based Instruction (WBI) for all learners and found that many students feel that some common web based instruction features make content inaccessible because designers do not consider accessibility at the beginning of the course design. If the issues of accessibility are not appropriately addressed, the potential of WBI cannot easily transfer into direct educational benefit for all learners especially students with disabilities.
Scribner (2004) explored the influence of instructional methods and learning style and found no statistically significant difference between spatial ability score and basic drafting instructional methods. However, statistical significance was found in the relationship between spatial ability and learning style. Statistical significance was found in the change between the pretest and posttest of subjects’ perceptual modality learning style.
Song (2004) studied perception of college students regarding the instructional quality of online courses delivered via WebCT (Web Course Tool). The results of the study showed overall positive perception regarding the instructional quality of online courses delivered via WebCT. The visually appealing website material received the highest rating. The result was closely correlated to student responses regarding the important aspects of instructional quality of online courses.
Strachota (2004) conducted a study on student satisfaction in online courses and found that students in courses that had either a voluntary or required discussion group were significantly more satisfied than those students who were in courses with no discussion group. The study further showed that students in science courses were significantly more satisfied with their online courses compared to students from the business and graphic arts courses. Females were significantly more satisfied with learner-instructor interaction than males. Students identified learner-content interaction as the most important criteria for a satisfying online experience and learner-instructor interaction as the second most important criteria.
Qureshi (2004) conducted a study to investigate various factors that might affect students’ satisfaction with online course components of an undergraduate programme and the investigator singled out five quasi models of descriptive characteristics (demographic, experiential, motivational, learning styles, instructional designs) as potentially having an impact on students’ satisfaction with the online course components (email, hypertext, online threaded discussions, web links, chat, video, audio, simulations, and graphics).
Stith (2004) discussed the value of animations versus static illustrations in science teaching. He found that the students who viewed the animations scored significantly higher on the test them those who had not viewed the animation.
Wang (2004) analyzed learning style preferences and their relation to achievement among online and traditional higher education students. The findings from the study indicated that there were no significant differences in academic achievements between two instructional modes.
Wingard (2004) assessed the impact of web-based enhancements on teaching and learning. Higher levels of interaction and comfort among participants were reported. Teaching faculty reported increased efficiency and convenience of making updated material available on the web.
Allert (2005) conducted a research on learning style as a correlate of success in introductory computer science education. As a part of this study, learning style profiles of students in each class were constructed; the visual, verbal scale was skewed to the right in each instance. The study identified that active reflective scale is significantly related to performance in computer programming classes.
Cain (2005) revealed that computer mediated conferencing enhances student learning outcomes irrespective of student background variables. The findings suggest that computer mediated conferencing should be used in combination with traditional classroom instruction to have the best effects.
Ho (2005) evaluated online interaction in asynchronous learning environments through a conversation analysis approach and examined the actual participation and dynamics that occur in an online conference discussion. Results indicated that students whose participation characterized high quality maxim received higher final course grade compared to their counterparts. In the larger class, a significant correlation was found between the number of instructor contributions and the number of student responses, suggesting that instructor participation can generate a higher level of active student participation.
Spampinato (2005) found that a higher percentage of students in the online course perceived the personal attributes such as study habits, reading ability, independent learning, self motivation and time management as more important to course success than did the students in the classroom format. The survey also showed that student-student interaction was perceived as important course attribute.
Sukhai (2005) studied the effects of web based animated demonstration and guided simulation in business software applications training and found that web based training had the highest training efficiency followed by courses with guided simulation compared to courses with combined animated demonstrations and guided simulations.
Whisler (2005) conducted an intrinsic case study with a survey to explore learner self-efficacy and interaction during the implementation of accelerated online college courses. As a participant observer, the researcher concluded that self–efficacy is a valid and reliable predictor of learning outcomes in an online course, interaction is a critical component of learner satisfaction and making better use of instructional time is more important than the actual amount of time allocated to courses.
William (2005), concluded that there was evidence of direct relationship between small class size and large class, towards teaching science with modern multimedia packages. But he suggested that class size affects achievement and which in turn affects attitude. There did, however, strong association exits between achievement and attitude and between achievements and class size.
Yahr (2005) conducted an investigation of the relationship between expertise and learning style and the results showed no statistically significant relationship between learning style and domain expertise.
Akpinar and Simsek (2007) conducted a study on the usage of variety of media by teachers to support student’s learning. Though there are many new tools and settlements in learning technologies and their specifications, there has been a fierce debate over learning objects and their development. They found that the meaningful correlation between the uses of some of the learning object components.
Acha J (2009) conducted a study The effectiveness of multimedia programmes in children’s vocabulary learning . The present experiment investigated the effect of three different presentation modes in children’s vocabulary learning with a self-guided multimedia programmes In this study, 135 3rd and 4th grade students were shown a short English language story, presented on a computer program. Twelve previously unknown words (key words) were embedded within the story. Students were presented with verbal annotations (written translation), visual annotations (picture representation), and a combination of the two to assist in their understanding of the twelve key words. Recall of word translations was highest for students who received verbal annotations only. These findings suggest a challenge for the effectiveness of self-learning multimedia programs in second language vocabulary acquisition.
Archana, J. (2009), conducted a study on effectiveness of multimedia program in children’s Chemistry learning. The present experiment investigated the effect of three different presentation modes in children’s Science learning with a self-guided multimedia program. In this study, 8rd and 9th class students were shown a short periodic table presentation, presented on a computer program. Twelve previously unknown words (key words) were embedded within the concept. Students were presented with verbal annotations (written translation), visual annotations (picture representation), and a combination of the two to assist in their understanding of the twelve key words. Recall of compounds was highest for students who received verbal annotations only. These findings suggest a challenge for the effectiveness of self-learning multimedia programs in chemistry components acquisition.
Arunkumar Dubbay (2009), conducted an experimental study of impact of multimedia package on achievement of science of VIII class students. He found that there does exist difference between control and experimental groups in respect of their science achievement scores. It was clear that training with multimedia package is genuinely better than conventional teaching method for science subject.
Buket and Meryem (2009) investigated the effects of learning styles on students’ achievement in different learning environments – text based, narration based and computer mediated and found that learning styles do not have any significant effect on students’ achievement in different learning environments.
Singh, Y. G. (2009), conducted “A Study of Effectiveness of Multimedia Program in Teaching Biology”. The study was conducted to develop a multimedia program for the teaching of Biology, and experimenting the same with a set of students studying in the IX standard and finding out its effectiveness over the traditional method of teaching. Pre-test and Post-test equivalent groups design was followed for this study. The result shows that the Students learning through multimedia program are found to be better than the students learning through traditional method of teaching.
Ashley Shear (2010), conducted a study on implementing educational science television in the third grade classroom. This study indicated that in order for an educational television program to be a successful tool for a teacher activities must be planned around the program. By asking questions, taking notes, and discussing a program students stay engaged and learn more. Educational television programs succeed as teaching tools to the unit and age appropriate for the students.
Joel (2010), undertook a study Influence of Multimedia in Enhancing Attitudes towards Science at High School Level. Multimedia package has influence on the attitude towards Science. It is observed that method of teaching with modern tools matters to develop attitude among students.
Harlen, Boohan, (2010), has reported that when teachers use appropriate media integrated in the Science curriculum, their students achieve significantly higher learning outcomes. The educational approach advocated in the Smart school reform documents shows a strong influence from Perkins’ (2010) original conception of a ‘smart school’ as one employing educational approaches informed by new perspectives in cognitive science, and responsive to social needs for deeper learning. Echoing the four levels differentiated in Perkins’ discussion of pedagogy of understanding, the Malaysian Smart School explicitly aims to develop “content knowledge, problem solving knowledge, epistemic knowledge, and inquiry knowledge”. Likewise, the Initiative’s emphasis on explicit teaching of skills for creative and critical thinking resembles Perkins’ notion of meta curriculum. Moreover, in line with Perkins’ emphasis on the physical, social and symbolic distribution of intelligence in particular as supported by new information and communication technologies the Initiative envisages such technologies helping to “combine the best of network-based, teacher-based and courseware materials.
Jennifer Sappey Dr , Stephen Relf ,(2010). conducted a study on Digital Technology Education and its Impact on Traditional Academic Roles and Practice. They explore the interface between digital technologies and the teaching labor process in Australian higher education. With the implementation of new educational technologies, the human resource management aspects of job design, motivation, skilling and work identity are often overlooked, with critical debate about the impact on the teaching labor process seldom considered. we embrace ICT as a potential benefit for both students and academic teachers.
Jing, Liu (2010) carried out An Experimental Study on the Effectiveness of Multimedia in College English Teaching. Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effectiveness of multimedia assisted methods in college English teaching. It seems and has been proved by some studies that multimedia assisted methods can effectively promote students English learning. But the results of this study do not positively contribute to the previous hypothesis.
Singh, Y. G.(2010) conducted A Study of Effectiveness of Multimedia Program in Teaching Biology. The study was conducted to develop a multimedia program for the teaching of Biology, and experimenting the same with a set of students studying in the XIIth standard and finding out its effectiveness over the traditional method of teaching. Pre-test and Post-test equivalent groups design was followed for this study. The result shows that the students learning through multimedia program are found to be better than the students learning through traditional method of teaching.
Allan h.k. yuen,(2011). Conducted a study on Exploring teaching approaches in blended learning. Blended learning is becoming increasingly popular in higher education. This study is to explore the pedagogical use of ICT in a blended learning context. Four teaching approaches, namely, providing online resources, supporting specific pedagogy, focusing on online discussion, and enhancing course management and delivery, emerged from the results of ten case studies. These approaches are pedagogical practices in transition and provide empirical evidence to shed light on issues in the research and practice of blended learning in higher education.
Desai, Beena Y. (2011), conducted A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Teaching through the Traditional Method and the Multimedia Approach in the Subject of Home Science. It is an experimental study which has employed experimental group and control group design. The sample of the study is constituted of 98 students of B.A. first year home science of Smt. J.P. Shroff School, Valsad. The students were found to have favorable opinions towards the multimedia approach. The study has found the relative efficacy of teaching through the traditional method and the multimedia approach in the subject of Home Science.
Ellaisamy, M. (2011) conducted a study Effectiveness of Multimedia Approach in Teaching Science at Upper Primary Level. The pupils of the experimental group have improved than the pupils of the control group in their scientific attitude. This is due to the favorable impact of the multimedia approach in the learning of the VIII standard pupils.
T.Enok, Joel (2011) undertook a study Influence of Multimedia in Enhancing Attitudes towards Computer Science at Higher Secondary Level. Multimedia package has influence on the attitude towards Computer Science. It is observed that method of teaching with modern tools matters to develop attitude among students.
Vansia, Falguni S.(2011) conducted a study Development and Effectiveness of Computer Based Learning Programme in Teaching Mathematics. In this study Computer Based Learning (CBL) Programme develop in Mathematics. Implement this Programme in Urban and Rural area Students for Study the effectiveness. CBL method effectiveness was found comparatively better in terms of achievement scores of students.
Yiu Chi Lai, Eugenia M.W.Ng (2011), conducted a study on using wikis to developed student teachers’ learning, teaching and assessment capabilities. The conclusion reached by this study were that wiki based activities are useful in developing a diverse range of student teacher capabilities and can play a significant role in their learning.
Bligh, Joyce et al, (2012). Creating Attention in Students focusing student attention on the material to be learned is an important factor in effective learning. There is a school of thought which proposes that teaching materials should match individual learning styles, i.e. visual, auditory and kinesthetic.
Duit, Cyrs, Harlen, Joyce et al, (2012). Examined multimedia models teaching in science help students make sense of the world by finding out the why of things and make abstract or imagined concepts seem more real to students.
Goran Karlsson (2012), conducted a study on instructional technologies in science education Students’ scientific reasoning in collaborative classroom activities. The analyses also evinced that the students’ interpretation of a demonstrated concept often diverted from a canonical scientific one, which warns against assuming that the collaborative meaning-making of animated instructional technologies automatically leads to a creation of the desired scientific concept. These findings emphasize that when designing and applying animated instructional technologies in education, one has to consider a wider context where assignment formulation, teacher guidance, school culture and semiotic processes influence how students approach and frame their assignment.
Mark D.Granito, Ellina Chernobilsky, (2012). were examined The Effect of Technology on a Student’s Motivation and Knowledge Retention. This study was to examine the impact that technology has on a student’s motivation to learn new information and retain said information. The results of this study support the idea that when given the choice of project, students retain knowledge no matter which project is chosen, traditional or computer-based.
Mayer (2012), proposed a series of multimedia design principles, including multimedia, contiguity, segmentation, coherence, personalization and individual difference. These principles state that teachers should emphasize important information and functions rather than squeezing more information into their teaching materials. Additionally, designers should make it possible to present texts and images simultaneously, to divide multimedia materials and present the desired segments, to delete repetitive and redundant information, and to find appropriate teaching materials. In doing so, learners will be able to achieve better learning effectiveness in Science.
Nayar and Pushpam, (2012), identified the students remember best those ideas or concepts that are presented in a way to relate their sensory channels, e.g. audio and visual representations, pictures, charts, models and multimedia The use of visual teaching aids can provide more concrete meaning to words, show connections and relationships among ideas explicitly, provide a useful channel of communication and strong verbal messages and memorable images in students minds and make Science lesson materials more interesting to students.
Sara Aloraini (2012), conducted a study on the impact of using multimedia on students’ academic achievement in the college of Education at King Saud University. An experiment of two equivalent groups were designed, one of the groups is experimental and the other is control, each of them consists of 20 female students. The lecture was given to the first group using computer presentation program which uses multimedia treated as an experimental group while the second group was given the same lecture using the traditional method which uses the dialog and discussion technique treated as a control group. Both groups were subjected to pre and post tests in the subject tackled by the lecture. The analysis result of the pre test showed no statistically significant differences which in turn proves the equivalence of the two groups. The analysis result of the post test showed that there are statistically significant differences between the experimental group and control group.
Wisniewski (2012), proved that students who watched multimedia teaching about Science concepts performed significantly better than those students who did not on a test conducted a week later. And concluded that this might be because of the fact that showing packages might help in some way to activate their long-term memory of the subject and the content of the lessons at later time. To summaries, when visual materials accompany verbal explanation, students may pay more attention to the material to be learned, conceptualize and comprehend abstract and difficult ideas, thoughts, and data better in their mind and store and remember more information efficiently.
Jing, Liu (2013), carried out An Experimental Study on the Effectiveness of Multimedia in Science Teaching. Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effectiveness of multimedia assisted methods in Science teaching. It seems and has been proved by some studies that multimedia assisted methods can effectively promote students Science concept learning.
M.Krishnakumar (2013) conducted a study on the impact of using multimedia package in teaching science. This study proved that multimedia techniques are very effective in teaching science concepts.
Raghaven and Glaser (2013), identified multimedia can help teachers bring the real world to students through the use of sound and video, interacting with a picture or diagram by enlarging or rotating it. Thus the Science oriented teaching becomes effective.
Education council recommended, a presentation involving audio and video clips would be considered a ‘multimedia presentation.’ Educational software that involves animations, sound and text is called ‘multimedia software ‘. As the information is presented in various formats, multimedia enhances user experience and makes it easier and faster to grasp. The old days of an educational institution having an isolated audio-visual department are long gone! The growth in use of multimedia within the education sector has accelerated in recent years, and looks set for continued expansion in the future. Multimedia is universal means, as it can be used for teaching to make the teaching-learning process effective, interesting and accessible. Teachers started experimenting the change in teaching method and methodology. The traditional blackboard approach is gradually giving way to more interactive session between the instructor and students.
Jadal, M. M. (2014), carried out a study Effectiveness of using multimedia in teaching Science. It was found that experimental group students, due to the usage of multimedia package in Science teaching, learnt effectively. Teachers started experimenting the change in Science teaching method and methodology. The traditional blackboard approach is gradually giving way to more interactive session between the instructor and students. Dynamic progress in information technologies has necessitated the change in educational process, its purpose, in developing new pedagogical technologies, and to introduce more effective methods and means of teaching. With the recent technological developments, an opportunity has emerged to introduce more efficient method of instruction in the classroom. Multimedia became one of the leading means of teaching today. The concept of multimedia came into existence in early 1990’s. Multimedia also refers to computer media. Multimedia is the integration of multiple forms of media. This includes text, graphics, audio, video, etc.
Elizabeth C. Homan (2014), conducted a study on Digital Pedagogies and Teacher Networks: How Teachers’ Professional Learning and Interpersonal Relationships Shape Classroom Digital Practices. This study have implications for how digital integration initiatives engage teachers in professional learning, suggesting that experiential learning and digital “play” are necessary components of teachers’ digital learning and that teachers’ in- and out-of-school professional networks are integral to teachers’ digital literacy learning and digital pedagogical development.
Kannan, M. (2014), conducted a study A Study of Effectiveness of Use of Computer Technology in Teaching the Concepts of Physics at Senior Secondary Level. The computer assisted teaching is the best method to teach the concepts of physics at senior secondary level. There is no much profitable learning by the students just by using computer technology to learn the concepts of physics without the aid of the teacher or by the traditional method of teaching physics.
Neil p. morris,(2014) conducted a study on How digital technologies, blended learning will impact the future of higher education. Digital technologies are revolutionizing all parts of society, including higher education. Universities are rapidly adapting to the prevalence of staff and student mobile devices, digital tools and services on campus, and are developing strategies to harness these technologies to enhance student learning. He explore the use of digital technologies to support blended learning in universities, and discuss how massive open online courses (MOOCs) can be improved through better understanding of successful use of technology, communication and collaboration in such scenarios.
Owolabi Olabode Thomas and Oginni Omoniyu Israel (2014) conducted a study on effectiveness of Animation and multimedia teaching on students’ performance in science subjects. This study revealed that there was a significant different in the performance of students exposed to cartoon style multimedia teaching and those that are conventionally taught. It was therefore recommended that the use of cartoon style animation and multimedia teaching shoule be encouraged so as to complement other methods of teaching science in schools and colleges.
Rafal Wajszczyk (2014) , conducted a study on A study of the impact of technology in early education. The purpose of his study is to analyze the current state of the use of Information and communication technology (ICT) and its impact on pupils in their early stages of education. The aim is to find out how, when and in what context ICT is used in the work with students. The overall objective is to study teachers views on ICT and their opinion on how ICT does affects pupils – positively or negatively. The results of this study are based on both a literature review and a qualitative study. The use of the qualitative methods in-depth interviews and surveys in strategically chosen primary schools extended the understanding and knowledge of the current state of ICT in early education. The result of this study shows a number of different aspects and issues that introduction of ICT into early education has caused and how it influences both teachers and students. As a result of the interviews and the survey answers, the main factors that have to the highest degree influence on how ICT does affects pupils are the access to technology and the abilities of both students and teachers. Despite all negative effects that ICT may be associated with, it can be concluded that the impact of ICT on students is positive in most cases.
Iqbal Shah, Muhammad Khan (2015), conducted a study on impact of multimedia aided teaching on students’ academic achievement and attitude at elementary level. This study revealed that multimedia aided teaching method is more effective than the traditional one. Students’ attitude towards science improves more if MAT method is used as compared to the traditional method of teaching.
Vansia, Falguni (2014), conducted a study Development and Effectiveness of Computer Based Learning Program in Science. In this study Computer Based Learning (CBL) Program develop in Science. Implement this Program in Urban and Rural area Students for Study the effectiveness. CBL method effectiveness was found comparatively better in terms of achievement scores of students.
Ranjit kaur, Kavita Sharma, Shamshir Singh (2015) conducted a study on effectiveness of multimedia approach on the academic achievement of class 8th students in Englih. The multimedia package prepared by researcher for teaching English was found to be more effective for academic achievement of class 8th students in English.
Tour, E. (2015), Conducted a study on Digital mindsets: Teachers’ technology use in personal life and teaching. He examined teachers’ technology use in personal life and teaching to provide additional insights into why teaching new literacies continues to represent a challenge. Inclusion of new literacies in school settings requires many changes because curriculum and pedagogy are already constrained by many external factors.
Don Passey (2016) conducted a study on Educational Digital Technologies in Developing Countries Challenge Third Party Providers. He consider issues and challenges of third party and governmental organizations in planning and implementing access to and uses of digital technologies for learning and teaching in developing countries. He considers failures and weaknesses in the planning and implementation processes highlighted by research in developed countries (as well as successes supporting implementation).
Kimberly Danielle Varela (2016) conducted a study on Museum Resources and Mobile Technology in Classroom Curriculum. This study reveals that educators’ familiarity with, and evolution of, their technological pedagogical knowledge correlated with their perceived success of the lesson. From the teachers’ experiences, this study was better able to identify and understand the importance of collaborating with teachers in research, the unique opportunities for increasing interaction with art museum objects by embracing mobile technology, and the potential for collaborating between universities and art museums in digital projects.
Sadaf salavati (2016) conducted a study on Use of digital technologies in education. The Complexity of Teachers’ Everyday Practice. In this study the complex, dynamic, contextual and multi-dimensional Practice of teachers’ use of digital technologies in their everyday work has been illustrated and presented.
Blended learning is a pedagogical strategy which skillfully integrates online learning techniques such as online delivery of materials through web pages, discussion boards and email and Face-to-Face instruction.
LITERATURE REVIEW ON HYBRID/BLENDED LEARNING
The purpose of the review of literature is to build up the context and background of research as well as to provide a basis for deep insight and clear perspective of the overall field.
STUDIES RELATED TO BLENDED LEARNING
Joyce Neff (1998) found that teaching through blended model have profound effect on teaching. Dziuban and Moskal (2001) reported that blended courses by replacing face-to-face class time with computer based learning and they reported that blended courses had reduced student withdrawal rates as well as superior student success rates.
McCary (2000) reported utility of online learning environment in traditional classes both as an efficient means for executing activities previously tethered to the classroom setting and as a means to allow the pursuit of higher levels of learning. This result is asserted by King (2002) who conducted a case study and found that hybrid online class discussions had the potential of prompting critical thinking. The depth of insight found in participants’ responses was higher than is often possible in face-to-face classroom due to time constraints.
King and Hildreth (2001) investigated the effectiveness of a freshman-level Internet-based biology course. They compared student performance and attitudes from an Internet-based biology course to that of a traditional biology course. The results revealed that, the Internet-based course was worthwhile, one-to-one contact between the instructor and students was higher in the Internet-based course, and that the Internet-based course provided multiple sources of information for students.
Pye and Sullivan (2001) conducted a survey regarding the teacher’s experiences with the use of computer-based applications during instruction. The researchers found that “an increase in student enthusiasm for learning social studies and a positive effect on the classroom learning environment occurs when computer-based instruction is regularly used in the middle school social studies classroom”.
Aycock, Garnham, & Kaleta(2002) some researchers and educators contend the benefits of blended learning are not the result of technology but rather the instructors’ reflection and redesign of pedagogical practices in light of new instructional and media choices.
Johnson (2002) found that accessibility to course content and connectivity with students increased in a hybrid course, while no differences were found in terms of effectiveness of instruction.
King (2002) explores the dynamics and experience offered for a professor and learners participating in a hybrid-modeled classroom in teacher education. The author found that hybrid online class discussion had the potential of prompting critical thinking, dynamic interactive dialogue, and substantial peer-to-peer interaction. The depth of insight found in participants’ response was higher than is often possible in a face-to-face classroom due to time constraints. One key limitation of the hybrid model is that it is affected by computer worms, power failures, and other technology problems.
Leh (2002) based on hybrid courses revealed that those students who studied in a hybrid course, learned as much as or more than the other students who studied in traditional courses. They were more motivated and preferred hybrid courses over traditional ones. He also found that students felt a greater sense of belonging in those courses that used synchronous communication although they enjoyed the flexibility of asynchronous communication.
Tuckman (2002) has undertaken a study on hybrid instructional model combining web-based and classroom components. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a hybrid instructional model called ADAPT. Results indicated that those students who were taught study skills through the ADAPT method achieved the highest GPA’s relative to past performance, those not taught study skills at all achieved the lowest, and those taught via traditional methods fell in between.
Willett (2002) has tried to examine the effectiveness of teaching a blended course. She found that the student response was largely positive. One of the main advantages of the hybrid format is reduced commuting time.
Boyle et al. (2003) has conducted a study on the student success rate in a blended learning programme. Results demonstrated marked improvements in pass rates. Evaluation of the student’s use of the new environment indicated a generally positive evaluation of the main elements of the blend and widespread use of the new online features.
Cameron (2003) has compared students’ performance on simulation-based courses and static graphic representational teaching of the same courses content in an online learning environment. Results indicate that interactive learning tools, such as simulation, have the potential to increase student motivation and learning in an online environment.
Carroll (2003) about a professor’s initiative to supplement face-to-face courses with online instruction evidenced equal learning outcomes compared to those students who have finished the program without the online components.
Chen (2003) attempted to study how the selected faculty and teaching staff members of University of South Carolina integrate Web-Based Instruction (WBI) in regular teaching and found that 72% of the faculty integrates WBI in regular teaching. The top five benefits listed by faculties were: improving communication, improving teaching, increasing student access to information, enhancing learning and reaching more students. Time and workload issues, technology availability and reliability, student factors, technical support, and technology expertise were top five top barriers.
Cottrell and Robinson (2003) examined the possibility of using blended approaches to reduce faculty time, re-focus student time and using blended learning as a way to admit more students to a given academic program. Students reported preferring the blended learning approach and classroom time was reduced.
Dowling, Godfry and Gyles (2003) found that the hybrid flexible delivery model is more positively associated with accounting students’ final marks and improved learning outcomes.
Graff (2003) studied gender differences and difference in cognitive style in blended learning environment with respect to students’ sense of community. Results indicated that students with intuitive cognitive styles reported a lower sense of community than students with an intermediate or analytic style. Few differences were found with respect to gender and sense of community in a blended learning environment.
Martin (2003) has developed a successful blended learning model. It consists of an initial face-to-face meeting, weekly online assessments and synchronous chat, asynchronous discussions, e-mail, and a final face-to-face meeting with a proctored final examination.
Meyer (2003) found that learnings that occur in both face-to-face settings and through online mode have value and some students seem to prefer one over the other based on their learning preferences. He coded online discussions using the Garrison Cognitive Processing Categories and found evidence of higher order thinking in the online discussions.
Olson (2003) studied the perceptions of hybrid classes at a notebook university and found that the majority of students preferred hybrid classes to traditional face-to-face classes. The most prominent reasons were the students’ ability to complete coursework at their own convenience, the increased time for other activities, not having to physically meet all the time, increased interaction with others, and the freedom that goes along with hybrid classes. Students’ responses were favorable toward hybrid courses and their learning experiences. The hybrid course model enhanced the students’ learning experiences through the increase in the amount and promptness of feedback between students and the instructor.
Osguthorpe ; Graham (2006) justify that blended classroom environments vary based on student characteristics, learning goals, instructor preferences, and online resources. Some courses may evenly blend the online and in-class components while other courses demand more of one approach. However, all blended designs aim to maximize the benefits of both instructional approaches according to the unique needs of learners. This study identified six specific goals for educators designing a blended learning environment. They are, Pedagogy must be rich and redesigned to improve student learning, Access to knowledge should be increased using online portals and a variety of online resources, Social interaction is vital during both face-to-face and online learning so instructors must facilitate meaningful discussions of content, Personal agency, or self-directed learning, should also be required of students so they can make choices related to their own learning, Cost effectiveness can be analyzed and is relevant for some institutions looking to increase class sizes and Ease of revision should be considered so the online environment can be easily changed and duplicated. In the Study of Osguthorpe and Graham (2003) blended learning consisted of an online science curriculum integrated with daily in-class activities. Students had personal laptops to access the online component that included content, interactive simulations, formative assessments, and discussion. Unlike many courses, this blended learning design did not reduce the amount of time students spent in their high school science class but online presentations of the content allowed for more student-centered learning in the classroom and less teacher-centered instruction.
O’Toole and Absalom (2003) tried to learn whether the provision of course materials on the Internet had a positive effect on student achievement of course outcomes. The investigator found that those students who attend lecture and read web materials performed better on the quiz than did those students who only attended lecture or only used the web.
Utts et al. (2003) has conducted a study for comparing traditional and hybrid internet based instruction in introductory statistics classes. They explored that student performance in the hybrid format equaled that of the traditional format, but students in the hybrid format were slightly less positive in their subjective evaluation of the course. Many students in the hybrid format felt the course was more work, with some feeling the workload was excessive.
Riffell and Sibley (2003) studied student perception of a hybrid learning format and the result indicated that students experienced more student-instructor interaction in the hybrid environment in a Biology course.
Scheidet (2003) conducted a study to explore student satisfaction in a blended learning atmosphere and found that the most important factor in student satisfaction and community formation is the degree of structure in a course.
Schweizer, Paechter and Weidenmann (2003) examined how groups of learners work together in blended learning and e-learning environments. Result of the study indicated that achievement in a particular group does not solely depend on the mode of communication used in the course.
Singh (2003) provided a comprehensive view of blended learning and discussed possible dimensions and ingredients of blended learning. The dimensions are of blending ‘offline and online learning’, blending ‘self paced, live and collaborative learning’, blending ‘structured and unstructured learning’, blending ‘custom content with off-the-shelf content’ and finally, blending ‘learning, practice and performance support’. The researcher provided a model to create the appropriate blend by ensuring that each ingredient, individually and collectively, adds to a meaningful learning experience.
Story Delis (2003) has found the blended courses to improve interactivity, foster peer collaboration across different learning modalities, and establish a sense of community.
Twigg (2003) has developed a model to improve learning and reducing cost of instruction. The aim of this study is to describe the potential benefits of using technology to improve the quality of student learning and reduce the costs of instruction by redesign instruction using technology. On average, the institutions reduced costs by 40%. Additional outcomes included increased course-completion rates, improved retention, better student attitudes towards the subject matter, and increased student satisfaction with the mode of instruction.
Cox, Carr and Hall (2004) evaluated the effectiveness of synchronous communication considering the roles of course design, group dynamics, and facilitation style in two blended courses and found that these three factors strongly influenced the successful use of this medium and student participation.
Dowling, Godfrey and Gyles (2003) investigated the association between the learning outcomes of students of traditional face-to-face and hybrid flexible delivery. Results indicated that the hybrid flexible delivery model is more positively associated with students’ final marks and improved learning outcomes.
Duhaney (2004) says that the online portal and activities should be gradually introduced to students while in the classroom so they become comfortable using the technology to achieve learning targets.
Dziuban, Hartman and Moskal (2004) found that blended learning results in more success compared to face-to-face modality for all ethnicity and asserted that blended learning increases student learning outcomes.
Ferdinand (2004) as part of a project, implemented blended learning for imparting science lessons at six schools and found that self directed learning was successfully stimulated by blended learning.
Girelli(2004) conducted a qualitative study on teachers’ perceptions of a hybrid in-service delivery model and reported that teachers entered the program preferring informal onsite workshop instruction to all other technology training options and that this preference proved durable. Teachers perceived video-based instruction as valuable but felt synchronous video was not valuable and found web-based learning challenging and frustrating but believed educational resources on the web are bountiful. Overall cohort members expressed satisfaction with the course attributing their satisfaction primarily to participation in project work.
Garrison and Kanuka (2004) contend that effective blended learning can facilitate the creation of a community of inquiry. Using multiple forms of communication, blended learning allows communities to exchange dialogue, debate, negotiation and agreement. This sense of community can then provide a stabilizing and cohesive effect to balance the limitless information available on the Internet.
Kish (2004) investigated the use of vignettes as a teaching strategy and as a learning activity to develop higher order thinking and academic achievement in adult learners in a hybrid online course. The research indicated that the use of teacher generated vignettes can increase academic achievement, and that learner generated vignettes can help students achieve higher order thinking. The result also indicated that vignettes were preferred both as a learning activity and teaching strategy when compared to lectures, demonstrations, projects, online slide presentations and online discussions. Some studies found that accessibility to content and connectivity among students increased in a blended learning programme, but with no difference in terms of effectiveness of instruction.
Garrison & Kanuka, (2004) says blended learning is not just about finding the right mix of technologies or simply increasing student access to content in a new medium. It is inherently about rethinking and redesigning the teaching and learning relationship. When implementing a blended approach, it is important to go beyond using technology to replicate or multiply traditional classroom instruction. For successful blended courses, a complete redesign of teaching methods is required to create meaningful and engaging integration between in-class and online learning.
Lynch and Dembo (2004) conducted a study on relationships between self-regulation and online learning in a blended learning context. The study identified learner self-regulation skills as predictor of academic success in a blended education context. It also revealed that verbal ability and self-efficacy are related significantly to performance.
Riffell & Sibley (2004) examines the effect of a hybrid course format on student attendance. A traditional lecture course was compared to a hybrid introductory college science course. Results indicated that completion rates of online homework were significantly greater than attendance rates to lectures.
Robinson (2004) conducted a study to understand faculty experience in designing and teaching blended learning course at Brigham Young University and identified faculty perceptions of three major benefits from the blended learning experiences such as more effective use of classroom time, increased flexibility in meeting time constraints of both students and professors and greater ability to meet the needs of individual learners. The quantitative phase revealed that there is a positive correlation between effectiveness of blended learning and support from the University administrators.
Rovai and Jordan (2004) conducted a comparative analysis of blended learning courses with traditional and fully online graduate courses. Results indicated that blended learning courses produce a greater sense of community than either traditional or fully online courses.
Wingard (2004) has conducted a multi institutional study to assess the impact of Web-based enhancements on teaching and learning activities taking place in traditional classrooms. Higher levels of interaction and comfort among course participants were reported. Faculty reported increased efficiency and convenience of making updated material available on the web.
Wu and Hiltz (2004) have tried to predict learning from asynchronous online discussions. The investigators used asynchronous online discussions which occurred in both face-to-face courses and online courses to evaluate whether students perceived increased learning through discussions. Results do show students perceive increased learning. Results vary but indicate that faculty could further enhance the student perceptions with further pedagogical techniques and strategies.
Clark and Patrick (2005) conducted a study using blended learning approach to deliver science courses and he found that the overall impact on student learning through blended learning was neutral. But this evaluation shows that it is possible to use online resources to deliver introductory science courses and make the courses more flexible without reducing the learning benefits.
Gulsecen, Ugurlu, Ersoy and Nutku (2005) found that blended learning provides students with equal opportunities, regardless of the fact that they either study at a private or state university. Benson (2005) conducted a research on comparison of learning style and other characteristics of site based, hybrid and online students. Research showed that participants in the three learning environments were significantly different in terms of their general information course selection, internet experience, and location of internet use, work schedule, learning style preferences and attitude towards online learning. The participants were not significantly different in terms of final course grade and course satisfaction.
Humbert and Vignare (2005) conducted a research case study and found that students like blended learning and believe faculty are offering more instructional strategies and resources using blended learning.
Krishnakumar and Ambedkar (2005) conducted a study and found that Computer Assisted English Language Learning (CAELL) method to teach English grammer was more effective, particularly when used with the assistance of a teacher.
Maguire (2005) conducted a study which aimed to investigate the impact of blended learning on the achievement of secondary grades students in Maths in Toronto in Canada. The sample consisted of 56 teachers who use blended teaching in Maths. Results showed significant differences in the scores of the students due to blended teaching method.
Oliver (2005) used a blended learning approach to support problem-based learning with first year students in large undergraduate classes. The findings appeared to provide evidences for the premise that a problem based teaching approach delivered using blended learning involving web-based tools and direct instruction could provide strong support for students in large class settings. Most students demonstrated positive levels of satisfaction with the approach to learning and indicated that the approach supported their learning.
Webb, Gill, & Poe (2005), online discussions were also found to improve student performance on learning outcomes related to knowledge and analysis in the field of Management Information Systems.
Akkoyunlu and Soylu (2006) used blended learning setting to explore the attitudes of students. A sample of 64 male and female students in the department of computer sciences and teaching methods was selected. The study proved that students enjoyed participating in the setting of blended learning and its effectiveness is observed from student participation in discussions and it is concluded that achievement of student was better in blended learning settings.
Al-Ma’aytah (2006) aimed to examine the impact of blended learning and teaching based on CORT program for the development of the language communication skills among the students at the Jordanian university. The sample of the study consisted of 78 students who were divided into two groups; an experimental and control group. Results showed significant differences in direct and postponed achievement in the language communication ascribed to teaching method, on behalf of the experimental group, and the study recommended the use of blended teaching for the development of language skills.
Balarabe (2006) studied the influence of blended e-learning on students’ attitude towards mathematics and computers. The result indicates that the subjects have positive attitude towards mathematics and computers. However, analysis of variance shows no statistically significant change in students’ attitudes towards mathematics and computers except for computer confidence and anxiety subscale.
Buket and Meryem (2006) examined students’ views on blended learning environment and found that students enjoyed taking part in the blended learning environment and students’ achievement levels and the frequency of their participation in forum affected their views about blended learning environment. The dimension of face-to-face interaction had the highest score and the results demonstrated the importance of interaction and communication for the success of online learning.
Clark (2006) contends that blended learning has always been the norm for learners because natural learning takes place through a variety of different encounters. However, for instructional design, blended learning is not about the learning but rather about the teaching. Blended courses have been defined to include both face-to-face and online teaching where 30-79% of the content is delivered online (Allen, Seaman, ; Garrett, 2007). Blended learning goes beyond classroom technology integration because students are expected to learn through online content delivery while having some element of control over their own learning time, place, path, and/or pace (Staker, 2011).
Antonym and Arunaraja (2007) carried out an experiment study and found that CBL package was more effective in teaching Chemistry. The package also motivated students to understand concepts, theories, laws, derivations, formulas and reactions used in Chemistry.
Bliuc et al., (2007) revealed that the online portion of blended learning allows students to learn content in their own time, organize themselves for self-directed learning, and then reflect on the meaning of their learning. Students reported that this positively enhanced their overall learning experience when they were engaged and stimulated by the ideas and processes included in the online module.
Chan and Law (2007) proposed a structured blended learning implementation for an open learning environment and opinioned that by introducing structured blended learning with the concept of learning cycle, the problem of being lost in hypermedia environment can then be solved.
Chen ; Jones (2007) justify that a wide variety of research studies have found the blended learning approach to have positive effects on student achievement while other studies have noted student success to be equivalent to traditional instruction.
Chew, Jones and Turner (2010) found that blended learning helped in holistic learning by bridging closer relationships between educators and learners with autonomous communication. Clark and Patrick (2005) conducted a project to determine whether students perceived as beneficial the online learning resources that had been incorporated into the teaching. The ease of getting readings from the online course page was praised by the participants and they found the questions accompanied by readings were useful and helpful. Responses about the online discussions varied and were about evenly balanced between those who found the discussion page to be excellent to those who either did not use it or used it very infrequently. Quite a number of students indicated that they acted as lurkers on the discussion page and that they checked into it, but did not submit any specific questions.
Delialioglu and Yilderum (2008) conducted research on students’ perceptions on effective dimensions of interactive learning in a blended environment in a hybrid course of computer networks and communication. The findings showed the need for meta cognitive support, authentic learning activities, collaboration and individualized learning. The study also revealed that access to internet played important role in students learning in the hybrid course.
Dettori and Persico (2007) conducted study on supporting Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) in a blended learning course. The study investigated the practice and development of SRL abilities in a blended learning course for trainee teachers. They found that the online component of the course was especially valuable with regard to the social aspects of SRL whereas, the face-to-face sessions seemed to contribute in particular to the development of the cognitive sphere. The study suggests that a balanced blend of in-person and online activities may result synergistic from the point of view of SRL.
Fong (2007) found that web based logging of classroom teaching activities for blended learning provides more flexibility in learning with more facilities of e-learning and classroom learning.
Jyothi (2007) prepared a self-Instructional module comprised power-point slides for teaching Chemistry to class IX students and found that it had immense influence. Students were better motivated and interestingly participated in Computer Based Learning.
Mathur and Oliver (2007) discussed a model for global learning that utilizes a blended learning approach and its implementation in an international technology master’s program. They reported that through an international distance education program that utilizes a blended learning approach, knowledge can be shared, and all countries and individuals participating can learn and expand on their knowledge.
McClure (2007) on Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) students found that blended learning environment encouraged self reflection and self evaluation, supported collaborative learning and problem solving skills, and facilitated tasks requiring analyses and evaluation of ‘real life’ teaching situations.
Pereira et al., (2007) concludes in a university human anatomy course blended learning was found to be more effective than traditional teaching because students earned higher grades and were more successful at passing an exam on the first attempt. At the high school level, studies have shown blended learning to result in students scoring significantly higher on a posttest compared to those experiencing only traditional, face-to-face instruction.
Bekele and Menchaca (2009) who examined the effect of blended learning on critical thinking is not completely in agreement with the result obtained in the study conducted by King (2002). Out of 157 psychology majors, 72 were randomly chosen and assigned to either an experimental (EG) or a control group (CG). The former attended to blended learning while the latter experienced the course traditionally for one semester. The result indicated that both the groups performed equally on critical thinking and problem solving tasks.
Hwang ; Arbaugh (2009) many blended learning approaches focus on the use of online discussion forums and a study of several business courses (n=217) measured the connection between student achievement and the level of discussion participation. Both the number of postings and the number of different forums in which a student posted were used to measure participation levels. The study showed this measure of participation could be used to accurately predict student grades on multiple-choice tests and this prediction was more accurate than any other factor such as age, gender, type of class, or even previous grades of students. Therefore, increased participation in online discussion was found to result in a better understanding of the content.
Hong and Miao (2009) aimed at investigating how blended learning has influenced sixth grade students with different ability levels in an elementary school in Taiwan in terms of their achievements in environmental education. The outcomes of the experiment are: 1) no conspicuous interaction between teaching approaches and learning capability is found in the posttest on environmental education; 2) subjects who accept blended learning demonstrate better achievements than the other group; 3) students with higher learning capability have higher achievements than the lower ones; 4) with different teaching approaches, students with lower learning capabilities show a remarkable difference in the posttest on environmental education.
Ozgen and Ufuk (2009) worked on the impact of blended learning model on student attitudes towards geography course and their critical thinking dispositions and levels. An experimental pattern with pretest posttest control group was used in the study. The experimental group was subjected to hybrid learning through the Geography web page, while the traditional learning model was used for the control group. The results of the study indicated that blended learning model contributed more to student attitudes toward geography course, student critical dispositions and levels when compared to the traditional learning model. There was a positive correlation between student attitudes toward geography course and their critical thinking dispositions and levels.
Sreekala (2009) proposed a paradigm shift adopting blended learning approach and discussed ways and strategies of blending online learning with face-to-face instruction in higher education institutions.
Babb, Stewart, ; Johnson (2010) says online course management system must be user-friendly, facilitate discussion to build a community of learners, and also have a good mechanism for communicating expectations and providing feedback.
Vanicharaoenchai and Tosulkaew (2010) compared academic achievements of students who studied through blended learning based on action learning, and students who studied through traditional learning. The results showed that the experimental group had higher achievement scores than the control group. The subjects were highly satisfied with the blended learning based on action learning methods.
Al-Awadh and Yunis (2011) aimed to investigate the impact of blended learning on the achievement of eighth graders in solving equations’ unit as well as their attitudes towards learning Maths. The experimental group was taught using blended learning method, while the control group was taught using traditional teaching methods. Posttests were applied on the participants of both groups. Results showed the lack of a significant impact of the achievement level on the attitudes of the students towards Maths, as well as the lack of an impact on the achievement of the students in functions and equations solving, and attitudes due to the teaching method and the achievement levels of the students.
Bani-Hamad (2011) aimed to explore the impact of blended learning on achievement and motivation in learning Arabic among third grade students, in comparison to traditional methods. The sample of the study consisted of 44 male and female students, who were chosen purposefully, and divided into two groups: experimental and control group. The experimental group was taught Arabic using blended teaching, while the control group was taught using traditional teaching methods. The experiment continued for the whole semester. Results of ANOVA analysis showed statistically significant differences in achievement due to the teaching variable strategy, and on behalf of the experimental group. Results showed also statistically significant differences in motivation towards learning Arabic, and on behalf of the experimental group as well.
Dhanya Krishnan (2011) analyzed blended learning in his research which is an attempt to the study the effect of blended learning strategy on science process skills and science achievement at secondary level. The study was of quasi-experimental in nature wherein a pretest-posttest non-equivalent group design was employed. The experimental group ninth standard student was taught six chapters of science using the blended learning strategy whereas the control group was taught the science chapters by the regular teacher using the conventional teaching method. The study revealed that blended learning is more effective than conventional method in enhancing science process skills and science achievement among secondary school students. It implies a greater scope for adopting blended learning strategy to optimize science learning at secondary level.
Gilbert & Flores-Zambada( 2011) goal of blended courses is to combine the best features of in-class learning with the best features of online learning to deliver a valuable educational experience to students.
Yen and Lee (2011) tried to explore problem solving patterns and their impact on learning achievements in a blended learning environment. Through quasi-experimental instruction, data was collected from 34 students in a blended learning environment using classroom instruction, mobile and web scenarios. By combining cluster analysis and content analysis, three groups were identified with distinct characteristics: the hybrid-oriented group, the technology-oriented group, and the efficiency-oriented group. Learners in the hybrid-oriented group used the classroom, mobile and web scenario almost equally. They displayed a regular manner in following the instructor’s teaching procedure, and tended to passively accept whatever the teacher said. Students in the technology-oriented group spent most of their time using mobile and web technologies but they revealed only superficial problem solving abilities. The efficiency-oriented group was characterized by the efficient monitoring of learning processes. It was more task-oriented and problem solving performance was better than the other two groups.
Bani- Doumi and Al-Zoubi (2012) conducted a study which aimed to investigate the impact of blended learning on the achievement of fourth graders in Maths and their motivation towards learning. Results showed significant differences between the means of the participants of the experimental and control groups in the achievement exam, on behalf of the experimental group. No significant differences were found between males and females in the achievement exam.
Chandra and Watters (2012), students in the treatment group utilized a teacher-created website to supplement their in-class learning of physics while the control group did not use the website (n=80). An assessment instrument showed the treatment group to have a significant increase in physics knowledge from pretest to posttest while the control did not.
Yapici and Akbayin (2012) compared high school biology classes and results indicated significant increases from pretest to posttest for the blended learning group, but not the
Control group (n=107).
Al-Basheer and Al-Hasanat (2013) explored the impact of blended learning on the improvement of the performance of elementary grade students in Arabic Listening skills. In order to achieve this objective the researchers chose two schools purposefully, one for males and the other for females. Two classes were selected from each school; one was used as a control group, the other as an experimental group. The researcher used Gold Wave Program with the experimental group, while the traditional method was used with the traditional method. The impact of blended learning on the performance of students was measured through a test developed by the researchers. Results showed the presence of statistically significant differences at the sig. level of (?=0.05) in the results of the post test of the experimental group, as well as differences ascribed to gender. Results showed also the absence of statistically significant differences due to interaction between teaching strategy and gender.
Dauod and Mahmoud (2013) aimed to examine the impact of blended teaching on the achievement of fifth graders in chemistry, and their attitudes towards blended learning in Mosul. Two secondary schools were chosen randomly; one was used as a control group (n=31 students) and was taught using traditional method, and the second class was used as an experimental group (n=32 students) was taught using blended teaching method. Results of the study showed statistically significant differences between the means of the achievement of the participants of the experimental group, and the means of the participants of the control group.
STUDIES RELATED TO ACHIEVEMENT IN SCIENCE
Marshall (1991) conducted a research on construct validity of multiple choice and performance based assessments of basic science process skills. The results indicated strong support for the convergent and discriminate validity for the test of basic science process skills for elementary and middle school students. The research review revealed that there were studies to find out the relationship of science process skills, science achievement, problem solving and other allied variables.
Sunilkumar (1998) studied the effects of self learning modules on achievement of senior secondary students in relation to their sex and plan of residence. It was found that the sex accounted for different achievement in economics. Male students got significant by higher mean post achievement test scores than female students. Students belonging to both rural and urban achieved almost identical scores and no significant interactional effect was observed among mode of instructional (exposure through self learning modules and conventional teaching), gender and place of residence.
Chang and Weng (2000) explored interrelationships between problem solving activity and science process skills of tenth grade earth science students in Taiwan and found that a significant correlation existed between students’ problem solving ability and science process skills.
Howes (2000), has conducted a study on Science Education reforms basically ignore the very people they are intended to benefit. Physics as it is taught in the majority of physics courses does not seriously take into account students interests. Adaptation of the curriculum by adding topics students are interested in could be a very effective means to solve some of the current problems of physics education.
Risley And John M. (2000), conducted a study on ” Attitude of science Content and Reinforce Student Learning in high school level” One meaningful approach to demonstrate to students the value of reworking exams is to offer an incentive to do so. This paper describes the strategy and effects of offering partial credit to students who rework answers originally answered incorrectly on an exam. This has proved largely successful for the last 10 years in several classes at the collegiate level. In the grading scheme used, the average percentage of the regarded on the final course grade is approximately 2-3%. While the regarded makes little difference in the final course grade for the majority of students, students are very appreciative of the opportunity afforded them, and this often changes their perspective of the class and the morale to a more positive attitude. Teachers in high school and in other disciplines may benefit from this approach.
Shrigley’s (1990), conducted a study on Science Attitudes and behaviour showed that science attitude scores can possibly predict science behaviors. Positive science behaviors should show an interest in science and science learning. Students should be given the opportunity to try to improve their science-related attitudes if improvement is needed. Shrigley’s findings that attitude scores can possibly predict science behaviors led to my first hypothesis: Students with a positive attitude towards science will show higher levels of effort during continuous use.
Breakwell and Robertson (2001), conducted a longitudinal study to examine the change in effectiveness towards science over a period of ten years in students between ages 11 to 14 years. The results indicated that boys had more positive attitude and better performance in science as compared to girls. Boys also participated more in extracurricular activities and liked science more at school than their girl’s counterparts. In another longitudinal study, found that student’s attitude towards science generally declined over the middle and high school years, and boys were found to have high attitudes towards science and their attitudes dropped faster than girls.
Prokop et al (2001), conducted a study on ” Student Attitudes toward Biology in high school level” The study examines the interests and attitudes of school students toward biology: through their interest in out-of-school activities and their attitude towards lessons as measured by interest, importance and difficulty. Biology lessons were relatively popular with the greatest preference found among students learning zoology.
Aimee, Hairston, Thames, Lawrence, and Herron (2002) who conducted a research on using a computer simulation to teach science process skills to college Biology and elementary education majors and found that 40% of the Biology majors and 85% of the elementary education majors indicated that the simulation helped them to understand science process skills.
Chunshih and Gamon (2002) found that learning styles did not have effect on science achievement in the web based course whereas learning strategy is found to be a significant factor which influences the achievement of students.
Sultana et al (2002), conducted a study on “A Study of Learners Perception and Attitude towards BA/BSC Program ” In the present day open and distance education has become a significant way of the development of higher education. Bangladesh Open University (BOU), the only public institution in Bangladesh offers several formal and non-formal programs from secondary to post graduate level through distance mode. The main objectives of BOU’s program is to provide flexible and need based education particularly to the rural and disadvantaged groups like woman, agricultural workers, unemployed youths, uneducated adults, on-the-job people etc.
Yucel And A. Seda (2002), conducted a study on ” Scientific Attitudes of secondary level” This study has been carried out to develop a tool to measure the level of anxiety of students studying in the 10th and 11th grades of high schools in Turkey. The scale has been created by the application of a pool of items consisting of 45 sentences based on student opinions and expert advice to 365 students and the branching of the results with the “Classification Trees” method to prepare a tree of 23 leaves. The prepared scale is called the Anxiety Tree and is a suggested guidance tool to identify existing anxieties about chemistry for chemistry teachers. It has features to be used as a tool to measure performance.
VonSecker (2002) found that an inquiry approach that included eliciting student engagement, using appropriate techniques, problem solving, conducting extended studies and scientific writing increased student achievement in science.
Charless (2003), investigated effectiveness toward Science education, critical ability and specific effective behaviors of Students who had studied, along with the modern approach. He found that the ability of students who had experienced Biological science was significantly increased were found among the students on any of the other teaching approach.
Foster And Clint (2003), conducted a study on” Community College Students Attitudes toward Postsecondary Science Education” There are many careers that do not require students to take those higher level science courses; therefore, students avoid registering for those classes. Many students are pursing science-related degrees and/or certification from community colleges; however, they lack the academic foundations to succeed in science. The purpose of this study was to identify community college students’ attitudes and perceptions toward postsecondary science education and the relationship of their attitudes and perceptions toward their academic achievement in postsecondary science. This study examined community college students that were registered in community college science course. Community college students were examined by answering 47 questions on the instrument, “Attitudes toward Science / Learning Science “. The study investigated the relationship of community college students’ attitudes toward their intended academic major, ethnicity, gender and academic achievement.
Herring (2003) compared the effects of kinesthetic based and text book based instruction on student achievement in science and found no significant difference between experimental group and control group. Interview with students and teachers revealed that kinesthetic teaching of science is more fun for students than the traditional way of teaching science.
Schuchman And Matthew (2003), conducted a study on” A Quantitative Examination of Public School Student Attitudes toward Science ” There is a insufficiency of male and female students entering the fields of math and science, and the need for highly educated individuals in these areas is expected to increase. While various factors may play a role in creating this insufficiency, there is a lack of research on one factor, that of student attitudes toward science. The theories of social aspects, how children learn and how teachers teach provided the framework for an examination of public school student attitudes toward science. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference in attitudes toward science in Grades 4-12 based on gender and grade level.
Vanees (2003), compared third and fourth grade students using laid low science series on periodic classification table skills, science achievements and science attitudes towards multimedia approach. Achievement skills differs were noted, student had more favorable attitudes towards Chemistry concept.
Bimbola et al (2004), conducted a study on “Effect of Constructivist-Based Teaching Strategy on Academic Performance of Students in Integrated Science at the Junior Secondary School Level” Research reports on the effectiveness of constructivist-based teaching strategy revealed that the strategy enhanced students’ academic performance. Findings revealed that the constructivist instructed students had higher scores on the post test and the delayed post test, compared to those exposed to conventional (lecture) method of teaching. We concluded that if integrated science teachers could incorporate constructivist-based teaching strategy into their teaching methods, there would be an improvement in academic performance of Junior Secondary School Students in integrated science. The researchers recommended that integrated science teachers should incorporate constructivist-based teaching strategy in their methods of teaching.
Myers (2004) conducted a research on effects of investigative laboratory integration on student content knowledge and science process skill achievement across learning styles and reported that learning style, teaching method, content knowledge pretest scores and science process skill pretest scores accounted for 33% of the variance in content knowledge gain score.
Proweller and Mitchener (2004) found that science content that failed to link with everyday experiences of students prevented them for becoming engaged in learning science.
Rambuda and Fraser (2004) studied the teachers’ perceptions of the application of science process skills in the teaching of geography in secondary schools in the Free State Province and found that the participants were able to distinguish cognitively between basic and integrated science process skills. In addition, the study reported that although the teachers did not apply science process skills to the teaching of geography on a regular basis, they were well acquainted with the fact that these skills remain an important facet in the teaching of geography in schools.
Saat (2004) found that web based learning environment helps students to acquire science process skills. Stephens (2004) conducted a research on the effects of web based inquiry on physical science teachers and students in an urban school district. The study showed that there were no significant differences in teacher’s perception of the learning environment before and after implementing web based inquiry activities. The findings also reported that there were no overall significant differences in students’ perceptions of the learning environments and achievements. The students confirmed that collaborating with others contributed to a deeper understanding of the science content.
Belge Can And Hatice (2005), conducted a study on “The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of interaction between gender and grade level on secondary school students’ attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject “The sample is composed of 197 students across Grades 9 to 11. The Attitude Scale toward Chemistry, developed by Geban ; Ertepinar is used to collect data. Principal Component Analysis revealed two dimensions of the scale which were labeled as “enjoyment of chemistry” and “importance of chemistry”.Students’ attitudes toward school chemistry in terms of both enjoyment and importance dimensions was statistically significant. Overall, the findings of this study offer that the educational objective of developing positive attitudes toward chemistry lesson is not fully achieved in Turkey.
Ferreira (2004) studied role of a science story, activities and dialogue modeled philosophy in teaching basic science process skills of 5th graders. Some of the key findings were that the story, activities and dialogue facilitated the children’s learning in the performance of classification, observation and inference. The multi sensorial activities help children to develop skills of inference and dialogues help to self-correct and build upon each other’s ideas.
Moodley (2004) studied the effects of computer-based dynamic visualization simulations on student learning in high school science and found that students’ understanding and performance were better in classes where teachers used computer-based dynamic visualizations to complement their traditional teaching. Analysis of classroom observations revealed a shift in classroom dynamics to more learner-centered with greater engagement by students; especially in classes that tend to have little student participation without the simulations.
Plough (2004) analyzed students using visual thinking to learn science in a web based environment and found that making visual sensations helped students understand science knowledge and making web pages helped students construct science knowledge structures.
Menaka (2005), conducted a study on Higher school students attitude towards science. The study shows that sex, Subjects, and locally of the High school students do not influence their attitude towards science and also a large number of high school students have a relatively favorable attitude towards science education.
Nellaiyappan, (2005), examined “A students of Scientific Attitude and interest among higher secondary Biology students in relation with to their technology learning environment. The study of it is found that the school learning environment and the scientific attitude and scientific interest of the higher secondary biology students are significantly related in respect of the entire sample and of the various categories of sub-samples.
S.D. Ranil (2005), conducted “A study of effectiveness problems of Science Education and attitude of students towards science in high schools of East Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya. In her study it is found that she made the female students were found to be homogeneous in their attitude towards science. The science attitude scores did not show any statistically significant difference in the case of students of different types and locate of schools. But tribal and non-tribal students differed significantly in their science attitude scores.
Y?lmaz, M. ; Akkoyunlu, B. (2005) conducted a study on the effects of technology use on student’s achievement and attitudes and found that technological materials have positive impacts on achievement and attitudes.
Barry. J. (2007), studied the effectiveness between students perceptions of their science class-room learning and attitude to four different scores of scientific information experiments, books, experts and teachers more favorable learning environment were found to promote positive approach towards experiments as a source of information while less favorable environments promoted more positive approaches to the more authoritarian sources of information.
Hamilton and Swortzel (2007) assessed teacher’s capacity for teaching science integrated process skills and found that AEST teachers exhibited a satisfactory level of ability to teach integrated process skills and they also had high self efficacy. There were also attempt to find out various modes of assessment of science process skills.
Jothikani and Thiagarajan A.P (2007), studied the effectiveness of science assisted instruction in physics among high school students and concluded that the conventional method is more effective and efficient that CAI method.
Jayasree . K (2007), Studied, Scientific Attitude and effectiveness towards Science in junior school level. In her study it is found that the trait effectiveness towards science was not distributed normally. There was association between effectiveness ability and modern teaching towards science.
Jegannayaglu (2007), conducted a study about the attitude of IX standard students towards science. The study revealed that the IX standard students in general have positive attitude towards science.
Lanka (2007) constructed a framework for identifying performance indicators of effective science process skills teaching in Botswana senior secondary physics.
S. Sundarajan, (2007), “An effectiveness of the teaching Science of Biology at the High school stage in Tamil Nadu. In the study it is found that as many as 87.8% of the 8th and 9th Biology students have a favorable attitude towards the study the Science and biology concept through multimedia teaching approach. There is significance difference between the Urban and the Rural students in respect of their effectiveness towards the study of Physics. Moreover the Rural student’s are found to be better than their Urban counterparts in their favorableness of effectiveness towards the study of Physics.
Sridevi (2008) found that constructivist approach enhances science process skills among students. Added to the above studies, Khan and Iqbal (2011) found that science process skills were improved as a result of inquiry lab teaching method.
Watson Jr. (2008), suggested that there is a need to provide graduate-level chemistry courses for secondary teachers that “would stress both the subject matter and strategies for teaching the various concepts”. As a result of such considerations, the qualifications of prospective teachers are being reconsidered, and new training programs are being developed.
Bayrak and Hale (2009) justify that web based instruction with student centered collaborative learning environment enhances science process skills compared to traditional teaching.
Johnstone, (2009), conducted a study on Chemistry has high conceptual demands as a school subject. Its triple nature, macro, sub micro and representational or symbolic, is unique. In spite of its short history, chemical education research has dealt with many crucial questions relative to the nature of chemical knowledge and the difficulties experienced by students in learning chemistry. A wealth of knowledge on chemical concepts and teaching methodology has made it imperative that new programs of professional training be established in universities.
Manoj and Devanathan (2011) found that problem based learning strategies significantly enhance science process skills. To corroborate the above studies, Aruna and Sumi (2011) found that process approach is effective in the development of science process skills.
Jager (2011) studied the factors influencing the implementation of the process approach in biology secondary education. The empirical research of the study found that various factors hamper the effective implementation of the process approach. It is important that negative factors such as ‘large classes’, ‘lengthy syllabus’, ‘lack of equipment’ and ‘lack of resource material’ be duly considered when implementing this process approach.
SYNTHESIS OF REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Maurice Imhoot (1983), found that Radio’s strengths and its cost effectiveness can be used effectively to meet expanding educational needs in developing countries without a loss in the quality of education. Thomson and Riding (1990) found out that the animation facilitates learning have a positive effect on the knowledge of the students who study mathematics. Kieras (1992), concluded that the animated graphic performed significantly better than traditional method. Callaway (1997), showed a statistically-significant difference in the average marks of the experimental group and the control group in favor of the experimental group which studied using the multimedia method. Pandya and Chaudhary (2000), concluded that to use innovative methods of teaching by the teacher which keep the students attentive in teaching learning process. Smith and Woody (2000), found that multimedia benefits students with a high visual orientation. Sureshkumar (2001), found that there was high level of interests generated among the students who scored more than the scores obtained by students in regular learning. Hema &Vasanthi (2003) , concluded that the teaching chemistry through CAI was found to be more effective irrespective of the units under study. Du (2003), found that the significant correlation between computer competency and students’ satisfaction levels within web based courses for accommodating styles and no significant results were found in other learning styles. Isman et.al. (2004), was found that computers are the main instructional support to the learning and teaching process. Li (2004) concluded that the most of the students “enjoyed working on the project” and believed “computer technology was useful” and they “learned not only the local history, but also computer technology” and they “learned much more from researching on the internet than from the text book”. Murray (2004) revealed that the kinesthetic learning style was strongly preferred by the online participants and the other perceptual modalities were also preferred, but to a somewhat lesser degree. Stith (2004), found that the students who viewed the animations scored significantly higher on the test them those who had not viewed the animation. Allert (2005), identified that active reflective scale is significantly related to performance in computer programming classes. Jack D. Thatcher (2006), found that the positive effects for subject who used the computer animation than for subject who used the text book. Singh, Y. G. (2007), found that Students learning through multimedia program are found to be better than the students learning through traditional method of teaching. Jing, Liu (2013), found that multimedia assisted methods can effectively promote students Science concept learning. Owolabi Olabode Thomas and Oginni Omoniyu Israel (2014), found that there was a significant different in the performance of students exposed to cartoon style multimedia teaching and those that are conventionally taught. Kimberly Danielle Varela (2016), reveals that educators’ familiarity with, and evolution of, their technological pedagogical knowledge correlated with their perceived success of the lesson.
King and Hildreth (2001), revealed that, the Internet-based course was worthwhile, one-to-one contact between the instructor and students was higher in the Internet-based course, and that the Internet-based course provided multiple sources of information for students. Leh (2002), found that students felt a greater sense of belonging in those courses that used synchronous communication although they enjoyed the flexibility of asynchronous communication. Cameron (2003), found that interactive learning tools, such as simulation, have the potential to increase student motivation and learning in an online environment. O’Toole and Absalom (2003), found that those students who attend lecture and read web materials performed better on the quiz than did those students who only attended lecture or only used the web. Dowling, Godfrey and Gyles (2003), indicated that the hybrid flexible delivery model is more positively associated with students’ final marks and improved learning outcomes. Kish (2004), found that vignettes were preferred both as a learning activity and teaching strategy when compared to lectures, demonstrations, projects, online slide presentations and online discussions. Riffell & Sibley (2004), found that completion rates of online homework were significantly greater than attendance rates to lectures. Rovai and Jordan (2004), found that blended learning courses produce a greater sense of community than either traditional or fully online courses. Maguire (2005), found that significant differences in the scores of the students due to blended teaching method. Chen & Jones (2007), found that positive effects on student achievement while other studies have noted student success to be equivalent to traditional instruction. Delialioglu and Yilderum (2008), revealed that access to internet played important role in students learning in the hybrid course. Dhanya Krishnan (2011), revealed that blended learning is more effective than conventional method in enhancing science process skills and science achievement among secondary school students. Yapici and Akbayin (2012), found that significant increases from pretest to posttest for the blended learning group, but not the control group (n=107). Dauod and Mahmoud (2013), statistically significant differences between the means of the achievement of the participants of the experimental group, and the means of the participants of the control group.
Chang and Weng (2002), found that a significant correlation existed between students’ problem solving ability and science process skills. Shrigley’s (1990), found that students with a positive attitude towards science will show higher levels of effort during continuous use. Breakwell and Robertson (2001), found that student’s attitude towards science generally declined over the middle and high school years, and boys were found to have high attitudes towards science and their attitudes dropped faster than girls. Chunshih and Gamon (2002) found that learning styles did not have effect on science achievement in the web based course whereas learning strategy is found to be a significant factor which influences the achievement of students. Herring (2003), revealed that kinesthetic teaching of science is more fun for students than the traditional way of teaching science. Bimbola, O., & Daniel, O. I. (2010), concluded that if integrated science teachers could incorporate constructivist-based teaching strategy into their teaching methods, there would be an improvement in academic performance of Junior Secondary School Students in integrated science. Yilmaz (2005), found that technological materials have positive impacts on achievement and attitudes. Jegannayaglu (2007), revealed that the IX standard students in general have positive attitude towards science. Manoj and Devanathan (2011), found that process approach is effective in the development of science process skills.
INSIGHTS GAINED FOR RESEARCH GAP
The investigator attempted to make a shift in the role of learner from passive to active in anyway. The early studies didn’t try much to connect the digital technology based blended learning and achievement of science. Some of the studies were focused on the multimedia approach for the learning of chemistry. Some of the studies were conducted on the CAI approach for achievement in chemistry.
The review in this area indicates that the effectiveness of using digital technologies in the science especially in chemistry seems to be least exposed area of educational research. It enhances that digital technology based blended learning used in the chemistry is connected with the achievement in educational aspects. Hence the investigator tried to compare and contrast these digital technologies in different field of chemistry.
In this chapter the investigator tried to found out the gap areas of research in connection with the digital technology based blended learning used in the achievement of chemistry in education. In this study for practical convenience the review is presented separately for each variable. The studies in respective areas were analyzed and synthesized. The investigator also attempted to explain in what way the previous studies helped in shaping the present study. The recent trends in these areas are also revealed in review of related literature.