Tasks can have effect on the process ofinteraction. In other words, Interaction of learners can be different regardingdifferent types of tasks.
There are several studies, which have examined therole of collaborative output tasks on L2 learning. (e.g., Kowal and Swain,1994; Storch, 2005; Swain and Lapkin, 2001). These tasks ”encourage learnersto reflect on language form while still being oriented to meaning making”(Swain, 2000, p.
112). A limited number of studies, which have been conductedon the impact of learners’ proficiency differences on their interaction haveused divergent or symmetrical convergent tasks (e.g., Kim & McDonough,2008; Kowal & Swain, 1994; Leeser, 2004; Watanabe & Swain, 2007). Kowal and Swain (1994) analyzedthe role of dictogloss task, which is a symmetrical convergent task, onlearning French grammar. They concluded that, when learners participated indictogloss task, they could receive feedback from their peers. In other study,Leeser (2004) stated that the dictogloss task differs from other informationexchange tasks in that there are no predetermined roles for each member inpairs, and both high and low leaners have equal information.However, Yule and Macdonald (1990)investigated the effects of an asymmetrical convergent tasks on dyadicinteraction.
Put it in another way, one of the learners in pair is providedwith more information. Pairs are given similar maps of a city. One of thelearners is provided with map which has delivery route, while the other maplacks delivery route. So, the partner with extra information should explain theroutes to the peer without showing the map. They reported that when the lowerproficiency member was responsible for the more dominant role, there was morenegotiation of meaning. However, when the higher proficiency member acted as amore dominant role, they engaged in little negotiation.
In other study, done by Swain and Lapkin(2001), two kinds of collaborative tasks (dictogloss and jigsaw) were used tocompare their effectiveness in terms of LREs. They hypothesized that while thefocus of dictogloss was on form, jigsaw would put more focus on meaning andthey found no significant difference between the two tasks. Based on lack of sufficient studies which haveanalyzed the effects of asymmetrical tasks, and contradictory results indifferent studies, it is worthwhile to examine LRES across both symmetrical andasymmetrical tasks in a single study involving mixed proficiency dyads.?- ????????? ????? ——————————————– Studies on technology-orientedenvironment:???- ????????? ????? Collaborative learning allows students tointeract in face-to-face environments. However, with improvement in technologythere is a need for learners to have not only face to face interaction but alsocollaboration via mobiles, computers, and other devices.
In a study by Kroonenberg (1995), French learnerswere able to have interaction in synchronous computer-mediated chat. Being fastis difficult in face-to-face settings. Therefore, this text-based mode allowedlearners to reflect on their utterances. In other words, on-line chatencourages learners to have negotiation of meaning. It also increases theirnoticing of linguistic errors. Salaberry (2000) pursued similarresearch by comparing the language of four Spanish learners in an offline settingversus an online setting. The result indicated the efficacy of online context,which can be attributed to positive features of text-based chat. Zeng & Takatsuka (2009) isanother study which has utilized Moodle in our realm.
This study investigatesEFL learners’ dialogues in synchronous task-based computer-mediated communication(CMC). Sixteen Chinese tertiary-level learners participated in this study. Theywere divided into eight pairs, and completed four tasks via Moodle. LRE was thebasis of analysis in this study. The findings indicated that participantsscaffolded each other through collaborative dialogue, which resulted inlanguage learning.
?- ????????? ?????Shekary and Tahririan investigatedthe hybrid nature of synchronic computer-mediated chat (SCMC). Sixteen Persianlearners were analysed to see to what extent their noticing improved. Onlinenegotiation was proved to be a way to reduce anxiety and increase the qualityof output during interaction. This study will foster thepositive effects of text-based online chat, to see whether it can be helpful inlearning conjunctions through collaboration or not. The application of Moodleon mobile will be used for analyzing interaction between learners.Attitudes of learners towardtechnology:???- ????????? ?????Meunier (1998) carried out a studyon SCMC among French and German learners.
Positive attitude among learners wasreported in this stress free atmosphere. She concluded that technology-basedenvironment improved initiation of learners who are usually reticent inclassroom. Al-Fahad (2009) implemented astudy to analyze attitude of learners towards mobile learning. One hundredeighty six female students were participants of this study. The aim was todetermine how technology can improve student retention at Bachelor of Art andMedicine programmed at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia.
Findings indicated that mobile learning couldbe a suitable method for improving this retention. The biggest advantage ofthis technology is that it can be used anywhere.?- ????????? ????? ——————————————– 7- ????? ??? ?????: (?? ???? ????)1.5 ResearchhypothesisTo answer the research questions,following null hypotheses will be proposed:1. There are not any significantdifferences between groups of symmetrical and asymmetrical convergent tasks in terms of learning Englishconjunctions2.
There are not any significantdifferences among proficiency levels of participants in terms of learningEnglish conjunctions during symmetrical convergent tasks.3. There are not any significantdifferences among proficiency levels of participants in terms of learningEnglish conjunctions during asymmetrical convergent tasks.4.
Three levels of proficiency donot affect quantity and quality of LREs.5. The attitude of the learners toward MALL does notchange after treatment