Table of ContentsA.
1. 1A.2. 4A.3.
7A.4. 11References. 13 A.1Introduction(i) Most people have a sense of what it means tobe a part of some kind of group, where it is a social movement, sports team,school club, or family.
A group consists of two or more individuals,interacting and interdependent with each other together to achievement ofcertain common objectives or a common goal (Mead). (ii) Theteam of joe is lack of creativity. Lack of creativity means that the team orgroup is missing new ideas in that one particular item that they have produced.The team consists of mixed people and each of them has one particular job whichthey are assigned to do according to their skills. The group members supporteach other’s ideas while they work hand in hand to complete the work before thedeadline. The groups are related to each other as they are on the same field.
(iii) Organizational FunctionsØ Accomplish complex, interdependenttasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals.Ø Generate new or creative ideas andsolutions.Ø Coordinate interdepartmentalefforts.Ø Provide a problem-solvingmechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments.Ø Implement complex decisions.Ø Socialize and train newcomers.
Ø Discipline: Disciplinewithin an organization is important to get the best result of it. Theorganization management has to find a proper way to achieve proper discipline.Ø Organizational Development: A formal organization works on the organizationaldevelopment by testing all the rules and regulations and the chain ofactivities as a present. Organization detects any problem and work to changethem if necessary for better service. Individual FunctionsØ Satisfy the individual’s need foraffiliation.Ø Develop, enhance, and confirm theindividual’s self-esteem and sense of identity.
Ø Give individuals an opportunity totest and share their perceptions of social reality.Ø Reduce the individual’s anxietiesand feelings of insecurity and powerless-ness.Ø Provide a problem-solvingmechanism for personal and interpersonal problems. (iv) Stages of Group Development 1. Forming: The forming stage represents a time where the group isjust starting to come together and is characterized with anxiety anduncertainty. Members are cautious with their behavior, which is driven by thedesire to be accepted by all members of the group.2. Storming: The stormingstage is where conflict and competition are at its greatest.
This is becausenow that group members have an understanding of the task and a general feel forwho they are as a group and who group members are, they feel confident andbegin to address some of the more important issues surrounding the group. 3. Norming: Once a groupreceives the clarity that it so desperately needs, it can move on to the thirdstage of group development, known as the norming stage. The norming stage isthe time where the group becomes a cohesive unit.4. Performing; The fourthstage in group development, when the group is fully functional.5.
Adjourning: The finalstage in group development for a temporary group, characterized by concern withwrapping up activities rather than task performance (Stages of Group Development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing & Adjourning, n.d.).A.2Introduction(i) Learning concepts play an important role inorganizations.
Because we view the world through the lenses of our conceptions,interpreting and acting in accordance with our understanding of the world. Learningmeans any relative permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result ofexperience. A learning style involves your preferred method of taking inorganization and understanding information. (ii) Thenature the reactions of the team made them end up again with the same ideaswhich they had before. Which was made from the best wood available at themarket and used the latest technology for processing. Overall, they had to dropthe idea of creating new products and go on with the same old idea. (iii)The Learning Process Learning permanently includes some kind ofexperience. These experiences may be resulting from confidential the body orthey may be sensual, arising outside.
Technical learning or ‘knowing how’,concerns your ability to carry out particular skilled actions such as riding ahorse. Declarative learning or `knowing that’, concerns your store of factualknowledge such as an understanding of the history of our use of the horse. Learningcannot be observed directly. We can only observe a person’s behavior and drawthe inference from it that learning has taken place. Ø Perceiving: It depends on goalsand values of the sense that we have.
Creating input means how you getinformation’s knowledge or how to develop and ideas of what has to be done orwhat has to do to reach in your goals. At this stage you have your own goalsthat you want to reach or maybe a dream that you want make it happens in reallife. Self-concept, how one pictures oneself, is a most powerful determinant inlearning (Robins, 1994).Ø Deciding: It means afterperceiving processing the sense that you have or the input that you created youwill think about that or how can you make it happen, or what you do to make ithappen, or how you put the information into a response. After perceiving it isthe time to decide that what the best input that you created is.
It may take minutesof time.Ø Acting: Output means how you do orwhat you do, or what will be your first step.Ø Feedback: Where you sharesomething externally or internally. Giving feedback about something or gettingfeedback about something or someone.(iv)Theories of Learning Ø ClassicalCondition: Itis a type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus thatwould not ordinarily produce such a response.
Example: First day of class, students walkinto class and teacher sits at desk. Teacher goes towards board when ready toteach and children quiet down. Second day of class, students are chatty whenthe teacher goes to the board.
Teacher asks to be quiet. Third day of class,students are automatically quiet when the teacher walks to the board.Ø OperantCondition: Operant conditioning can be described as a process thatattempts to modify behavior through the use of positive and negativereinforcement. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an associationbetween a particular behavior and a consequence.Example: Parentsrewarding a child’s excellent grades with candy or some other prize.Ø Shaping Behaviorism: This particular learning theory assumes the learner asessentially passive, who simply responds to their environmental stimuli. So,the behaviorist theorists believe that a learner basically begins as a cleanslate, and their behavior is shaped through positive/negative reinforcements.Example: You makejoke, and you are rewarded positively by people’s laugher of amusement.
Ø Social Learning: In this theory explains human behavior in terms ofcontinuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavior, andenvironmental influences.Example: Commercialsuggest that drinking a certain beverage or using a particular hair shampoowill make us popular and win the admiration attractive people. Depending upon thecomponent processes we may model the behavior shown in the commercial and buythe product being advertised.
A.3Introduction(i) Attitudes are the established ways of respondingto people and situation that we have learned, based on the beliefs, values andassumption we hold. Attitudes become manifest through your behavior. Anattitude is a mental neural state of readiness exerting a directive or dynamicinfluence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations withwhich it is related (Attitude, n.d.). (ii) If I was in Jose’s position I will Go on with the same topnotch designed which uses the latesttechnology for processing and uses the best wood other than recreating a wholenew product which might cost a loss. if I was in the place of joe I wouldmention in the memo to drop the idea of creating new and go on with the oldidea.
(iii) Leaders shape our nation, communities, and organizations. We are inneed of good leaders to help guide us and make the essential large-scaledecisions that keep the world moving. Our society is always quick to identify abad leader, but can most people identify a good one? What wouldmost people say makes a good leader? If the characteristics of a good leaderabove do not describe you, there are ways for you to improve upon yourleadership capabilities.These includes to be a good leader (What are the characteristics of a good leader, n.d.): Ø Good CommunicatorØ Good ListenerØ HonesØ KnowledgeableØ Can make decision Ø Has a sense of humorØ Responsibility Ø TrustworthyØ LoyaltyØ Accountability Ø Team player / Team workØ DependableØ Creative / Innovative Ø Can remain calm in stressfulsituationØ Gets along with co-workersØ Gives recognitionIn order to be a good leader whois supposed to earn the respect and trust from other employs and is supposed tosupport the idea given by them to make it more relevant.
for joe, I would liketo suggest holding on to the ideas given by the employs to bring out even morecheaper products which are liked for whole over the world. (iv) Influencedby NatureØ Heredity explains about 50 percentof behavioral tendencies and 30 percent of temperamentØ Minnesota studies – twins hadsimilar behavior patterns Influencedby NurtureØ Socialization, life experiences,learning also affect personalityØ Personality isn’t stable at birthØ Stabilizes throughout adolescenceØ Executive function steers usingour self-concept as a guide (v)Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:Maslowstated that workers have unsatisfied needs that must be met in order tomotivate them. Maslow said that people start by meeting theneeds at the bottomof the pyramid.
Once they have sorted outthose needs, they canmove on to the needs ofthe next level up.Ø Physiological needs: Basiclife needs (air, food, shelter etc.)Ø Safety needs:Protection, security, order, law, limits, stability.Ø Social needs: Family,love, relationships, work group, affection.Ø Esteem needs: Self-confidence and sense ofself-worthEsteem from others: Valuation of self from other people.Self-esteem: Feeling of self-confidence and self-respect achievement,status, responsibility, reputation.Ø Self-actualisation: Personalgrowth and fulfilment.
Herzberg’s two factor theoryIn the1960s Frederick Herzberg interviewed accountants and engineers to find out whatmotivated and satisfied them at work. He identified two groups of factors thatinfluenced the motivation of workers.Herzberg: hygiene factorsThese don’t motivateas such, but if they are not good, workers will be unhappy:Ø company policyØ working conditionsØ payØ supervisionØ good relations with other workersFor example,a worker expects good working conditions. If they are in place they do notmotivate but if they are poor then dissatisfaction occurs.Herzberg: MotivatorsThesefactors do motivate, but only if the hygiene factors are in place:Ø interesting workØ achievementØ recognitionØ personal development and promotionØ more responsibility Theory Xand theory Y: Are theories of motivation created by DouglasMcGregor in the 1960’s. Theydescribe two different management viewpoints of the workforce and how it impactsmotivation.Theory Xmanagers believe employees:Ø need to be controlledØ don’t like workØ need to be pushed to be more productiveØ need incentive schemesØ have to be directed to do things they don’t enjoyØ Theory X workers tend to be unhappy in the workplaceTheory Ymanagers believe employees:Ø want to be involvedØ can think for themselves and make decisionsØ share ownership of tasksØ will find work more rewarding if given responsibilityand a variety of tasksØ have good ideasØ can engage in some form of self-managementØ Theory Y workers are more productive and motivated.
(Theories of Motivation)A.4IntroductionLeadership is the main role of aleader – a person who guides or directs a group of people. Good leaders havegood leadership, and there are certain qualities or characteristics of peoplewho make good leaders (What Is Leadership?). Diana, Princess of Wales Leadership ProfileWho Was Princess Diana?Born Diana Spencer on July 1, 1961 in Sandringham, Princess Dianabecame Lady Diana Spencer after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencerin 1975. She married the heir to the British throne, Prince Charles, on July29, 1981.
They had two sons and later divorced in 1996. Diana died on August31, 1997, from injuries she sustained in a car crash in Paris. She isremembered as the “People’s Princess” because of her widespreadpopularity and global humanitarian efforts.British royalty Princess Diana Spencer was born on July 1, 1961,near Sandringham, England. Diana, Princess of Wales, was one of the most adoredmembers of the British royal family. She was the daughter of Edward JohnSpencer, Viscount Althorp, and Frances Ruth Burke Roche, Viscounts Althorp(later known as the Honorable Frances Shand Kidd).
Her parents divorced whenDiana was young, and her father won custody of the children. Following herinitial education at home, Diana attended Riddles worth Hall School andthen West Heath School. She became Lady Diana Spencer after her father inherited the titleof Earl Spencer in 1975. Although she was known for her shyness while growingup, she did show an interest in music and dancing. Diana also had a greatfondness for children. After attending finishing school at Institute Alpine Widenmannitein Switzerland, she moved to London.
She began working with children,eventually becoming an assistant at Young England Kindergarten.Marriage to Prince CharlesDiana was no stranger to the British royalfamily, having reportedly played with PrinceAndrew and PrinceEdward as a child while her family rented Park House,an estate owned by QueenElizabeth II. In 1977, she became reacquainted with theirolder brother, PrinceCharles, who was 13 years her senior.Family Life and DivorceOn June 21, 1982, Diana and Charles had theirfirst child: PrinceWilliam Arthur Philip Louis. He was joined by a brother, Prince HenryCharles Albert David—known widely as “PrinceHarry”—more than two years later, on September15, 1984.How Did She Die?She tragically passed away in acar accident in 1997, at the young age of 36.
She is a type of leader by moral example, herpersonality, charisma. Charity and humanitarian work was part of herroyal duties. However, Diana did more than just attend benefits or extendformal royal patronage to charities; she became deeply devoted to helping thosein need, those who were forgotten or shunned by society, and she championedcauses that were atypical for royals.She brought attention to socialcauses and challenged public perceptions through her humanitarian work. Dianawas well-known for supporting the banning of landmines in Africa, fighting thesocial stigma against HIV/AIDS patients, and extending time and compassion toleprosy sufferers. Her sincere empathy and kindness for the vulnerable insociety earned her admiration and respect from many around the world.Conclusion She is remembered from hergrace, style and her deep commitment to charity and humanitarian work.
in 1999,TIME magazine named her one of the 100 most important people of the 20thcentury (Liza, 2017). ReferencesAttitude. (n.d.
). Retrieved from www.businessdictionary.com: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/attitude.
htmlLiza. (2017, January 30). Diana, Princess of Wales Leadership Profile. Retrieved from leadershipgeeks.com: http://www.leadershipgeeks.com/diana-princess-wales-leadership/Mead, M.
Group Dynamics. Retrieved from hwww.tcii.gov.nl.
ca: http://www.tcii.gov.nl.ca/regionaldev/CCB/Group_Dynamics/CCB_GroupDynamicsGuide.pdfRobins, J.
&. (1994). Perception. Retrieved from open.lib.umn.
edu: http://open.lib.umn.edu/organizationalbehavior/chapter/3-4-perception/Stages of Group Development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing & Adjourning.
(n.d.). Retrieved from study.com: https://study.
com/academy/lesson/stages-of-group-development-forming-storming-forming-performing-adjourning.htmlTheories of Motivation. (n.d.). Retrieved from an-introduction-to-organizational-behavior: https://2012books.lardbucket.
org/books/an-introduction-to-organizational-behavior-v1.0/s09-theories-of-motivation.htmlWhat are the characteristics of a good leader. (n.
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org: https://www.ccl.org/blog/what-are-the-characteristics-of-a-good-leader-infographic/What Is Leadership? (n.d.). Retrieved from www.mindtools.com: https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_41.htm