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Table of
ContentsA.1. 1A.2. 4A.3. 7A.4. 11References. 13                 A.1Introduction(i)                
Most people have a sense of what it means to
be a part of some kind of group, where it is a social movement, sports team,
school club, or family. A group consists of two or more individuals,
interacting and interdependent with each other together to achievement of
certain common objectives or a common goal (Mead).  (ii)              
team of joe is lack of creativity. Lack of creativity means that the team or
group is missing new ideas in that one particular item that they have produced.
The team consists of mixed people and each of them has one particular job which
they are assigned to do according to their skills. The group members support
each other’s ideas while they work hand in hand to complete the work before the
deadline. The groups are related to each other as they are on the same field.(iii)            
 Organizational FunctionsØ  Accomplish complex, interdependent
tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals.Ø  Generate new or creative ideas and
solutions.Ø  Coordinate interdepartmental
efforts.Ø  Provide a problem-solving
mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments.Ø   Implement complex decisions.Ø   Socialize and train newcomers.Ø  Discipline: Discipline
within an organization is important to get the best result of it. The
organization management has to find a proper way to achieve proper discipline.Ø  Organizational Development: A formal organization works on the organizational
development by testing all the rules and regulations and the chain of
activities as a present. Organization detects any problem and work to change
them if necessary for better service.  Individual FunctionsØ  Satisfy the individual’s need for
affiliation.Ø  Develop, enhance, and confirm the
individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity.Ø  Give individuals an opportunity to
test and share their perceptions of social reality.Ø  Reduce the individual’s anxieties
and feelings of insecurity and powerless-ness.Ø  Provide a problem-solving
mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems. (iv)            
 Stages of Group Development   1. Forming: The forming stage represents a time where the group is
just starting to come together and is characterized with anxiety and
uncertainty. Members are cautious with their behavior, which is driven by the
desire to be accepted by all members of the group.2. Storming: The storming
stage is where conflict and competition are at its greatest. This is because
now that group members have an understanding of the task and a general feel for
who they are as a group and who group members are, they feel confident and
begin to address some of the more important issues surrounding the group. 3. Norming: Once a group
receives the clarity that it so desperately needs, it can move on to the third
stage of group development, known as the norming stage. The norming stage is
the time where the group becomes a cohesive unit.4. Performing; The fourth
stage in group development, when the group is fully functional.5. Adjourning: The final
stage in group development for a temporary group, characterized by concern with
wrapping up activities rather than task performance (Stages of
Group Development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing & Adjourning,
Learning concepts play an important role in
organizations. Because we view the world through the lenses of our conceptions,
interpreting and acting in accordance with our understanding of the world. Learning
means any relative permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of
experience. A learning style involves your preferred method of taking in
organization and understanding information. (ii)              
nature the reactions of the team made them end up again with the same ideas
which they had before. Which was made from the best wood available at the
market and used the latest technology for processing. Overall, they had to drop
the idea of creating new products and go on with the same old idea.   (iii)The Learning Process  
Learning permanently includes some kind of
experience. These experiences may be resulting from confidential the body or
they may be sensual, arising outside. Technical learning or ‘knowing how’,
concerns your ability to carry out particular skilled actions such as riding a
horse. Declarative learning or `knowing that’, concerns your store of factual
knowledge such as an understanding of the history of our use of the horse. Learning
cannot be observed directly. We can only observe a person’s behavior and draw
the inference from it that learning has taken place. Ø  Perceiving: It depends on goals
and values of the sense that we have. Creating input means how you get
information’s knowledge or how to develop and ideas of what has to be done or
what has to do to reach in your goals. At this stage you have your own goals
that you want to reach or maybe a dream that you want make it happens in real
life. Self-concept, how one pictures oneself, is a most powerful determinant in
learning  (Robins, 1994).Ø  Deciding: It means after
perceiving processing the sense that you have or the input that you created you
will think about that or how can you make it happen, or what you do to make it
happen, or how you put the information into a response. After perceiving it is
the time to decide that what the best input that you created is. It may take minutes
of time.Ø  Acting: Output means how you do or
what you do, or what will be your first step.Ø  Feedback: Where you share
something externally or internally. Giving feedback about something or getting
feedback about something or someone.(iv)Theories of Learning Ø  Classical
Condition: It
is a type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that
would not ordinarily produce such a response. Example: First day of class, students walk
into class and teacher sits at desk. Teacher goes towards board when ready to
teach and children quiet down. Second day of class, students are chatty when
the teacher goes to the board. Teacher asks to be quiet. Third day of class,
students are automatically quiet when the teacher walks to the board.Ø  Operant
Condition: Operant conditioning can be described as a process that
attempts to modify behavior through the use of positive and negative
reinforcement. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association
between a particular behavior and a consequence.Example: Parents
rewarding a child’s excellent grades with candy or some other prize.Ø  Shaping Behaviorism: This particular learning theory assumes the learner as
essentially passive, who simply responds to their environmental stimuli. So,
the behaviorist theorists believe that a learner basically begins as a clean
slate, and their behavior is shaped through positive/negative reinforcements.Example: You make
joke, and you are rewarded positively by people’s laugher of amusement. Ø  Social Learning: In this theory explains human behavior in terms of
continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavior, and
environmental influences.Example: Commercial
suggest that drinking a certain beverage or using a particular hair shampoo
will make us popular and win the admiration attractive people. Depending upon the
component processes we may model the behavior shown in the commercial and buy
the product being advertised.A.3Introduction(i)                
Attitudes are the established ways of responding
to people and situation that we have learned, based on the beliefs, values and
assumption we hold. Attitudes become manifest through your behavior. An
attitude is a mental neural state of readiness exerting a directive or dynamic
influence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations with
which it is related (Attitude, n.d.).  (ii)              
If I was in Jose’s position I will Go on with the same topnotch designed which uses the latest
technology for processing and uses the best wood other than recreating a whole
new product which might cost a loss. if I was in the place of joe I would
mention in the memo to drop the idea of creating new and go on with the old
 Leaders shape our nation, communities, and organizations. We are in
need of good leaders to help guide us and make the essential large-scale
decisions that keep the world moving. Our society is always quick to identify a
bad leader, but can most people identify a good one?   What would
most people say makes a good leader? If the characteristics of a good leader
above do not describe you, there are ways for you to improve upon your
leadership capabilities.These includes to be a good leader (What are the
characteristics of a good leader, n.d.): Ø  Good CommunicatorØ  Good ListenerØ  HonesØ  KnowledgeableØ  Can make decision Ø  Has a sense of humorØ   Responsibility Ø  TrustworthyØ  LoyaltyØ  Accountability Ø  Team player / Team workØ  DependableØ  Creative / Innovative Ø  Can remain calm in stressful
situationØ  Gets along with co-workersØ  Gives recognitionIn order to be a good leader who
is supposed to earn the respect and trust from other employs and is supposed to
support the idea given by them to make it more relevant. for joe, I would like
to suggest holding on to the ideas given by the employs to bring out even more
cheaper products which are liked for whole over the world.       
(iv)        Influenced
by NatureØ  Heredity explains about 50 percent
of behavioral tendencies and 30 percent of temperamentØ  Minnesota studies – twins had
similar behavior patterns         Influenced
by NurtureØ  Socialization, life experiences,
learning also affect personalityØ  Personality isn’t stable at birthØ  Stabilizes throughout adolescenceØ  Executive function steers using
our self-concept as a guide     (v)Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:Maslow
stated that workers have unsatisfied needs that must be met in order to
motivate them. Maslow said that people start by meeting the
needs at the bottom
of the pyramid.
Once they have sorted out
those needs, they can
move on to the needs of
the next level up.Ø  Physiological needs: Basic
life needs (air, food, shelter etc.)Ø  Safety needs:
Protection, security, order, law, limits, stability.Ø  Social needs: Family,
love, relationships, work group, affection.Ø  Esteem needs: Self-confidence and sense of
self-worthEsteem from others: 
Valuation of self from other people.Self-esteem: 
Feeling of self-confidence and self-respect achievement,
status, responsibility, reputation.Ø  Self-actualisation: Personal
growth and fulfilment.Herzberg’s two factor theoryIn the
1960s Frederick Herzberg interviewed accountants and engineers to find out what
motivated and satisfied them at work. He identified two groups of factors that
influenced the motivation of workers.Herzberg: hygiene factorsThese don’t motivate
as such, but if they are not good, workers will be unhappy:Ø  company policyØ  working conditionsØ  payØ  supervisionØ  good relations with other workersFor example,
a worker expects good working conditions. If they are in place they do not
motivate but if they are poor then dissatisfaction occurs.Herzberg: MotivatorsThese
factors do motivate, but only if the hygiene factors are in place:Ø  interesting workØ  achievementØ  recognitionØ  personal development and promotionØ  more responsibility Theory X
and theory Y:  Are theories of motivation created by Douglas
McGregor in the 1960’s. They
describe two different management viewpoints of the workforce and how it impacts
motivation.Theory X
managers believe employees:Ø  need to be controlledØ  don’t like workØ  need to be pushed to be more productiveØ  need incentive schemesØ  have to be directed to do things they don’t enjoyØ  Theory X workers tend to be unhappy in the workplaceTheory Y
managers believe employees:Ø  want to be involvedØ  can think for themselves and make decisionsØ  share ownership of tasksØ  will find work more rewarding if given responsibility
and a variety of tasksØ  have good ideasØ  can engage in some form of self-managementØ  Theory Y workers are more productive and motivated.(Theories
of Motivation)A.4IntroductionLeadership is the main role of a
leader – a person who guides or directs a group of people. Good leaders have
good leadership, and there are certain qualities or characteristics of people
who make good leaders (What Is Leadership?). Diana, Princess of Wales Leadership ProfileWho Was Princess Diana?Born Diana Spencer on July 1, 1961 in Sandringham, Princess Diana
became Lady Diana Spencer after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer
in 1975. She married the heir to the British throne, Prince Charles, on July
29, 1981. They had two sons and later divorced in 1996. Diana died on August
31, 1997, from injuries she sustained in a car crash in Paris. She is
remembered as the “People’s Princess” because of her widespread
popularity and global humanitarian efforts.British royalty Princess Diana Spencer was born on July 1, 1961,
near Sandringham, England. Diana, Princess of Wales, was one of the most adored
members of the British royal family. She was the daughter of Edward John
Spencer, Viscount Althorp, and Frances Ruth Burke Roche, Viscounts Althorp
(later known as the Honorable Frances Shand Kidd). Her parents divorced when
Diana was young, and her father won custody of the children. Following her
initial education at home, Diana attended Riddles worth Hall School and
then West Heath School. She became Lady Diana Spencer after her father inherited the title
of Earl Spencer in 1975. Although she was known for her shyness while growing
up, she did show an interest in music and dancing. Diana also had a great
fondness for children. After attending finishing school at Institute Alpine Widenmannite
in Switzerland, she moved to London. She began working with children,
eventually becoming an assistant at Young England Kindergarten.Marriage to Prince CharlesDiana was no stranger to the British royal
family, having reportedly played with Prince
Andrew and Prince
Edward as a child while her family rented Park House,
an estate owned by Queen
Elizabeth II. In 1977, she became reacquainted with their
older brother, Prince
Charles, who was 13 years her senior.Family Life and DivorceOn June 21, 1982, Diana and Charles had their
first child: Prince
William Arthur Philip Louis. He was joined by a brother, Prince Henry
Charles Albert David—known widely as “Prince
Harry”—more than two years later, on September
15, 1984.How Did She Die?She tragically passed away in a
car accident in 1997, at the young age of 36.She is a type of leader by moral example, her
personality, charisma. Charity and humanitarian work was part of her
royal duties. However, Diana did more than just attend benefits or extend
formal royal patronage to charities; she became deeply devoted to helping those
in need, those who were forgotten or shunned by society, and she championed
causes that were atypical for royals.She brought attention to social
causes and challenged public perceptions through her humanitarian work. Diana
was well-known for supporting the banning of landmines in Africa, fighting the
social stigma against HIV/AIDS patients, and extending time and compassion to
leprosy sufferers. Her sincere empathy and kindness for the vulnerable in
society earned her admiration and respect from many around the world.Conclusion  She is remembered from her
grace, style and her deep commitment to charity and humanitarian work. in 1999,
TIME magazine named her one of the 100 most important people of the 20th
century (Liza, 2017).               ReferencesAttitude.
(n.d.). Retrieved from (2017, January 30). Diana, Princess of
Wales Leadership Profile. Retrieved from, M. (n.d.). Group Dynamics.
Retrieved from, J. &. (1994). Perception.
Retrieved from of Group Development: Forming, Storming,
Norming, Performing & Adjourning. (n.d.). Retrieved from of Motivation. (n.d.). Retrieved from
an-introduction-to-organizational-behavior: are the characteristics of a good leader. (n.d.). Retrieved from Is Leadership? (n.d.). Retrieved from   


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