Summary: Electric vehicles have become a hot topic today due to their cheapness and absence of pollution. Brushless DC motor units (BLDCs) play a crucial role in electric vehicles. It has gradually replaced the traditional DC units in various applications thanks to its brushless erosion and switches and has more advantages, including high efficiency and reliability, smaller size, lower noise, less weight, less maintenance, long life and elimination of ionization . Sparks from the commutator and other benefits.To improve the performance of the BLDC control circuit, a traditional PI controller can control the speed of the BLDC. However, the stability of the machine can not be guaranteed when the load changes.
The driver parameters are used to improve the response to the pitch and the performance characteristics of the BLDC engine. The actual optimization parameters of the PID controller are the primary criteria for improving performance. Traditional methods require manual adjustment of PID parameters.The main objective was to obtain a stable, robust and controlled system by adjusting the PID controller using the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). Modeling results show a significant increase in BLDC motor performance compared to existing methods. Keywords: non-linear PID controller, excellent, classic, BLDC engine, PSO algorithm 1.
Introduction The BLDC motor is now widely used for many uses and industrial vehicles due to long life, high dynamic response, high efficiency and good speed characteristics compared to torque. Because it is less noisy than other options, thanks to the brushless motor. The proposed optimization technique could be used for a higher system order, as well as providing better system performance with minimal errors.
The master plan must be the applicable technical OSP for the design and adjustment of PID controller parameters to achieve improved performance 1-3. The PSO request to the PID controller gives the possibility to repeatedly tune to an online procedure, while the request of the optimization algorithm for the PID controller allows to provide an optimal result by looking for the most excellent set of solutions for the PID parameters. The BLDC motor has a simple structure and is cheaper than other motors, so it is used in the variable speed control of the motor drives 4-5. They have improved the speed compared to the torque, greater efficiency and a better dynamic response than the other engines and offer greater torque to the engine, which makes it useful in terms of space and weight. Also for the production of the BLDC pair, information on the position obtainable with the Hall sensors is required. The machine has a three-phase stator, a three-phase distribution of the windings; The torque of the brushless DC motor depends on the reverse electrical potential of a specific position. Generally, a brushless DC motor has an EMF trapezoidal waveform and the stator consists of a conventional rectangular stator power, assuming it has a stable torque, but due to EMF wave imperfections, current ripple and switching of phase current, there are torque fluctuations 6-10 The permanent magnet DC motor uses the mechanical switch and the electric brush to perform the switching.
However, the BLDC motor uses Hall effect sensors rather than a mechanical switch and brushes. The stator of the BLDC motor are the coils and the rotors are the permanent magnet. The stator generates a magnetic field to rotate the rotor. The Hall effect sensor detects the position of the rotor as a reversing signal 11-13. Therefore, the BLDC motor uses a permanent magnet rather than a coil in the armature and therefore does not require a brush.
In this document, the three-phase and half-bridge PWM (PWM) inverter controls the speed of the brushless DC motor. The dynamic characteristics of brushless DC motors are similar to those of permanent magnet DC motors. The characteristic equation of the brushless DC motor can be expressed as 15: where is it:?app (t) is the applied voltage, ? (t) t is the motor speed, L is the stator inductance, i (t) is the circuit current, R is the stator resistance, ?emf (t) t is the inverse electromotive force, T is the torque motor, the viscous coefficient D, the moment of inertia J, the constant Kt of the motor torque and the constant electromotive force Kb.In this work, the brushless DC motor is driven by PWM, controlled by