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Summary:A bit isthe little amount of data in the computer. Bits have a single binary value, 0or 1. Computers typically provide to control and manipulate bits, but are typicallydesigned to store data and to access bit numerous instructions is called bytes.Boolean operators are simple words (AND, OR, XOR & NOT) join which joins orexcludes search terms in belonging search productive results. Avoidinappropriate strokes and save time and effort. It must be scanned before beingdestroyed. AND represent that one statement is true and other is false. ORrepresent any one statement is correct.

In XOR only one statement is true. NOTrepresent we will give input then give to contrast output. A Device which giveus an output when we give input. It is called Gates.

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A group of circuit isknown as Flip Flop. For the purpose of storing data, a computer covers a largegroup of circuits (such as flip-flops), each skilled of storing a singlebit.  This reservoir is called themachine’s main memory. A computer’s, Main memory organize in controllableunits. This unit is called Cell.

Every cell consists of 8 bits and 8 bits equalto one byte. In a computer there is no left and right. Bits place in a row. Theleft side of this row is called high order end and the other end is low orderend.  Tocategorize specific cells in a computer’s main memory, each cell is allocated aunique “name” is called address. In computer’s main memory is organized asspecific, addressable cells, the cells can be recover independently as needed.To show the capability to access cells in any way, a computer’s main memory itsknown Random Access Memory (RAM).

Due to the decreasing limitation of storedata in computer and volatility of data, mostly in computers have additionalmemory device. This is called Mass storage. A spinning disk is magnetic coated.It is used to read and write data, is called Magnetic disk. Another class ofmass storage systems applies visual technology. An example is the Compact Disk (CD).Information is recorded on them by creating variations in their reflectivesurfaces. This information can then be retrieved by means of a laser beam thatdetects irregularities on the reflective surface of the CD as it spin.

A Flashdrive is an ultra-portable device. It is very small and dissimilar an opticalor conventional hard drive. This device is the combination of USB device andcable. Data store in the form of group as large unit. It is called File. Thetechnique which is used to data transferring and storing. It is reduce the sizeof data.

It is called Data Compression. The codewhich does is encoded to audios and videos. This code is called MPEG. Imagesnormally encode in GIF. How data can be encoded as bit patterns. Our studyfocuses on popular methods for encoding Text Numerical data, Image, and Sound.Each of these systems has repercussions that are often visible to a typicalcomputer user.

Information in the form of text is normally represented by meansof a code in which each of the different indication in the text (such as theletters of the alphabet and punctuation marks) is assigned an uncommon bitpattern. The text is then represented as a long string of bits in which thesucceeding designs represent the successive indication in the original textstoring information in terms of encoded characters is inefficient when theinformation being recorded is purely numeric. Suppose the problem of storingthe amount 25. If we insist on storing it as encoded symbols in ASCII using onebyte per symbol, we need a total of 16 bits.

Moreover, the largest number wecould store using 16 bits is 99. One means of representing an image is tointerpret the image as a collection of dot. The appearance of each pixel isthen encoded and the entire image is represented as a collection of theseencoded pixels. Such a collection is called a Bit Maps.

The code not onlydetects the mistakes but also correct the mistake, its known Error CorrectingCode.           

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