Describe the purpose, methods, and nursing management related to non-invasive and invasive respiratory care strategies (I. E. , DDCD, spectrometry) for patients with respiratory robbers. 2. Discuss the purpose, significance, and nursing management strategies of the results of respiratory system diagnostic studies.
Key Terms: Pleural membranes: Visceral pleura and Parietal pleura Elastic recoil Compliance Tattletales Occasions Despise Orthogonal Homeostasis Hyperventilation Hypoxia Hyperspace Hyperventilation Tachyon Broadened Retractions Accessory muscles Barrel chest Kewaskum breathing Cheyenne-Stokes Bitts breathing Clubbing of fingers Respiratory Acidosis Normal Lung sounds: Vesicular Bronchial Prehistorically Respiratory Alkaloids Metabolic Acidosis Metabolic AlkaloidsPeak flow meter Adventitious lung sounds: Wheezing Orphanage’s airway Moneychangers airway Strider Pleural friction rub Voice sounds: Cacophony Francophone Incentive speedometer Rhinos Nursing Diagnosis: Ineffective airway clearance Ineffective breathing patterns Altered health maintenance Sleep pattern disturbance Impaired gas exchange Activity intolerance Alteration in nutrition Pain Impaired verbal communication Body image disturbance Risk for infection/infection Self-care deficit Sexual dysfunction Ineffective coping Diagnostic Test: Anxiety Describe procedure and significance of each.Arterial blood gas (BAG) Chest x-ray Bronchus’s Pulse geometry CT scan Pulmonary Function Test Lung scan WAS scan MR….
Thorniness Lung biopsy Sputum studies Hog and HCI Pulmonary mammogram B. The Patient with Respiratory Problems Objectives: At the end of this unit the student will be able to: 1 . Describe the nursing responsibilities for patients with respiratory problems, including: sleep apneas, sinusitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, asthma, and lung cancer. 2. Explain the types of chest surgery and appropriate nursing management during the pre- and postoperative periods. 3.Plan appropriate care for patients with chest tubes. 4.
Describe the multiple, complex needs of patients with chronic respiratory problems and implications for effective nursing care: COOP. 5. Administer medications appropriately and safely to patients with respiratory problems. 6.
Provide effective teaching to patients using multi-dose inhalers (MDI) and unbelievers. 7. Describe the age-related changes in the respiratory system and differences in assessment findings and clinical treatment. Key Terms Apneas Hyphened Pleurisy Pleural effusion Mayhem Periphrastic Meningitis Undemocratic Cord Pulmonary Bulla TracheotomySame as part A Same as part A plus: Paleography’s (EGGS) Radiotelephone’s test (RASA) Respiratory Study Guide 1 . Describe the mechanisms that regulate acid-base balance. 2. Your patient returns from a bronchus’s. What are the nursing responsibilities you need to consider? 3.
What symptoms do you expect to encounter for a patient with an airway obstruction? 4. What are the predisposing factors for pneumonia and bronchitis? 5. Identify the infection control precautions implemented when caring for a patient with pneumonia.
6. What pharmacological agents are used for pneumonia?Give consideration to patient teaching. . A patient with pneumonia has a nursing diagnosis of ineffective breathing pattern related to pain. What nursing interventions are indicated for this diagnosis? 8. Describe the similarities between asthma and COOP. 9.
Describe the different types of oxygen delivery systems available to adult patients. 10. Describe what the term pneumonia and hemorrhoid mean and the treatment considerations for the condition.
11. You are caring for a patient with a chest tube connected to CACM of suction. The chest tube comes apart causing the patient shortness of breath, pain, and anxiety.What do you do to correct this situation? 2. Define the following terms: TracheotomyвЂ” LobotomyвЂ” AppendectomyвЂ” 13. Your patient is 16 hours post-pop and has tattletales and a fever of 102.
What are the nursing interventions to be implemented in order of priority? 14. Study the causes and interventions when encountering the following conditions: Respiratory acidosis Respiratory alkaloids Metabolic acidosis Metabolic alkaloids Acid Base Disturbances: Respiratory Acidosis: CO retention related to hyperventilation. In acute situations, the pH is < 7. 5 while chronic conditions can remain normal due to the kidneys having time to compensate. Causes of this condition can be due to pneumonia, respiratory failure, airway obstruction, atelectasis, obesity, head injury, neuromuscular problems such as 6B, MG, and spinal cord injury. Certain drugs such as anesthetics, hypnotics, narcotics and sedatives can cause respiratory acidosis. Signs and symptoms include apprehension, confusion, diaphoresis, dyspnea with rapid shallow breathing, nausea and vomiting, restlessness, tachycardia, tremors, warm, flushed skin, and muscle weakness.
Because potassium leaves the cell in acidosis, expect to see K+ levels greater than 5. Treatment goals are to improve ventilation by lowering the APPC level. If non-pulmonary conditions are the cause, then the underlying condition is treated. Other treatments include prognosticators, antibiotics, supplemental oxygen, chest physiotherapy, coughing and deep breathing, incentive speedometer. If hyperventilation cannot be corrected, expect the patient to be initiated and placed on mechanical ventilation.Respiratory Alkaloids: Excessive exhalation of CO or hyperventilation which is usually associated with anxiety or pain. Can also occur with silicate intoxication, overuse of nicotine and xanthiums. Hyperbolical states such as fever or sepsis can cause alkaloids.
Anemia and asthma are other causes. Signs and symptoms include increase in respiratory rate, tachycardia, restlessness, anxiety, muscle weakness, depression, tenant. In the chronic phase, the HECK drops.
Calcium levels drop as do the potassium levels.Treatment includes decreasing the respiratory rate, use of rebirth bag, sedation to reduce anxiety, breathing exercises, and institute safety measures if the patient is at risk for seizures. Metabolic acidosis: Excessive loss of HECK from extracurricular fluid, an accumulation of metabolic acids or both can occur with diabetic acidosis’s, diarrhea, renal disease, starvation, or shock. This can be a secondary condition due to hepatic diversion, or pulmonary conditions. Such medications as potassium- sparing diuretics or aspirin/aspirin-containing products.Signs and symptoms include hyperventilation, Kewaskum respirations, hypertension, confusion, stupor, coma, diminished muscle tone and deep tendon reflex, nausea and vomiting, dull headache, warm and dry skin that can become clod and clammy if shock occurs. Treatment includes replacing HECK while treating the underlying cause. For example, respiratory must occur first.
Treating diabetic acidosis’s with rapid acting insulin occurs if the condition is present. Sodium vicars is given to patient with pH less that 7. 1. Fluid replacement, dialysis, antibiotics are also considered.Metabolic alkaloids: Excess vicars results when more base is retained in the blood that can be neutralized or excreted.
Most common causes include loss from GIG tract such as ENG suctioning, vomiting, pyloric Stetsons. Can occur with electrolyte imbalances such as hypoglycemia, hypochlorite, and hypothermia. Medications causing problems include the ethicize and loop diuretics, antacids, corticosteroids and sodium vicars.
Signs and symptoms include slow shallow respirations, anorexia, apathy, confusion, Hyannis, hypertension, nausea and vomiting, weakness, muscle twitching, numbness and tingling around the mouth, fingers, and toes.