Time consuming C] Expensive C] Limited coverage This is a method where written answers re given to prepared questions. 0 Compared to the Direct method, this requires less time L] It is inexpensive since the questionnaires can simply be mailed or hand-carried. C] Gives the respondent a sense of freedom in honesty answering the questions because of secrecy. This is a method enforced by certain laws. Examples: 0 Registration of birth Registration of marriage C] Registration of death OBSERVATION This is a method which observes the behavior, characteristic, reaction, interaction of individuals or organizations in the study.Observe: To notice using a full range of appropriate senses. TO see, hear, feel, taste, and smell This is also used when the respondents cannot read nor write.
EXPERIMENT This method is used when the objective of the study is to determine the cause and effect of certain phenomena or event. Characteristics Of A Good Question A good question is unbiased. Must not be worded in a manner that will influence the respondent to answer in a certain way, that is to favor a certain response or to be against it.
An unbiased question is stated in neutral language and has no element of pressure.Examples of unbiased questions: C] Do you watch Korean Novella? Do you like classical music? (l Are you in favor of legalizing divorce in he Philippines? Examples of biased questions: C] Do you watch corny Korean Novella? L] Do you like boring classical music? CLC Are you in favor of destroying the sanctity of marriage by legalizing divorce in the Philippines? A good question must be clear and simply stated. This is to makes your question easier to understand and More likely to be answered truthfully. Examples of simple and clear questions: C] What is your average grade last semester?CLC How many units are you enrolled in this Examples Of NOT so simple and clear questions: C] What is your academic performance last C] How heavy is your academic load this A good question must be precise. Questions must not be vague. CLC It should indicate clearly the manner how the answers must be given.
Examples of precise questions: L] In terms of mathematical ability, do you think male and female are equal? C] Did the restaurant staff smiled while taking your order? Examples of vague questions: C] Do you think male and female are equal? 0 Was the restaurant staff friendly? Good questionnaires lend themselves to easy analyses.Two (2) Categories of Survey Questions OPEN QUESTION An open question allows a free response. What are the things you consider before buying a cellophane? What do you think can be done to reduce the volume of plastic bags waste in Cavity? CLOSED QUESTION A closed question allows only a fixed response.
What is the first factor you consider before buying a cellophane? Choose only one. A. Price b. Brand c. Features Types of Data PRIMARY DATA Are information collected from an original source of data, which is first-hand in nature. Examples are data collected from interviews and surveys.SECONDARY DATA Are information collected from published or unpublished sources like books, newspapers, journals, theses. Four (4) Important Points To Consider in Collecting Data If measurement of some characteristic room people (such as height, weight) are being obtained, better results will be achieved if the researcher does the measuring instead Of asking the respondent for the value.
The method of data collection used may expedite or delay the process. Avoid a medium that would produce low response rates. Ensure that the sample size is large enough for the required purposes.Ensure that the method used to collect data actually results in a sample that is representative of the population.
Sampling Sampling is the process of selecting samples from a population of interest in order to study and fairly generalize the exults back to the population from which the sample was chosen. Advantages of Sampling Reduced Cost (The cost of studying all the items in a population). Greater Scope (The time-consuming aspect of contacting the whole population). Greater Speed (The physical impossibility of checking all items in the population).
Greater Accuracy (The adequacy of sample results in most cases).Some Definitions Target population is the entire group a researcher is interested in. Sampled Population is the collection of elements from which the sample is actually taken. In the ideal case, it should coincide with the target population. The frame – Before selecting the sample, the population must be divided into parts (“sampling units” or “units”) Population frame is a listing of all individual units in the population. Sampling frame is a listing of sampling units. Types of Sampling Techniques Probability Sampling method is any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection.
Samples are chosen in such a way that each member of the population has a known though not necessarily equal chance of being included in the samples. L] Random Selection is performed by selecting a group of subjects (a sample) for study from a large group (population). ADVANTAGES OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING 1. It avoids biases.
2. It provides basis for calculating the margin of error. Non-probability Sampling method does not involve random selection of samples. Each member of the population does not have a known chance Of being included in the sample. Instead, personal judgment plays a very important role in the selection.
Types Probability Sampling SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING: Samples are chosen at random with members of the population having known or sometimes equal probability or chance of being included in the samples. A) Lottery b) Sampling with the use of Table of Random Numbers SYSTEMATIC RANDOM SAMPLING: Samples are randomly chosen following certain rules set by the researchers. The items or individuals of the population are arranged in some order.
Example: A random starting point is selected and then every kith member of the population is selected for the sample.