So first of all, I am going to explain what it is: It’s the process of developing a genetically identical copy of a cell or organism. This process can happen at any time in nature when a cell replicates itself asexsually (it’s type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent). There is also such a thing as natural twins, also known as identical twins. They occur in humans and as well in other mammals. These twins are formed when a fertilized egg splits, creating two or more embryos that can carry nearly identical DNA (they do not occur that often though). Identical twins have pretty close genetic makeup as each other, but not the same as their parents do.In today’s science we have three different types of artificial cloning (made or produced by a human rather than produced naturally): gene cloning, therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. In a typical gene cloning procedure, the gene or other DNA fragment is first inserted into a circular piece of DNA called plasmid.
The insertion into the DNA is done using enzymes (highly selective catalysts, which speed chemical reactions in our cells), and it produces a molecule of recombinant DNA (genes can be taking from different sources).When the recombinant DNA gets created it gets introduced into bacteria. It carries the plasmid and gets grown up there. As bacteria reproduce, they replicate the plasmid and pass it on to their offsprings, making copies of the DNA it contains.
In some cases scientist are making many copies of DNA sequences in a plasmid so they could experiment on them. In other cases, scientists turn bacteria in to ‘factories’ to produce protein in the body. For example, human insulin gene is expressed in E.
coli bacteria to make insulin, which is used by diabetics.Therapeutic cloning produces embryonic stem cells for creating tissues to replace injured or diseased one. The process is like this : Embryo would be allowed to grow for around 14 days. It’s stem cells by then would be extracted and encouraged to grow, for instance into a piece of human tissue. The end result wouldn’t be a human being, but a replacement for organ, piece of nerve tissue, or some skin.Reproductive cloning involves creating a whole animal and not just DNA of it. In reproductive cloning, the newly created embryo is placed back into the uterine environment where it can develop.
The most well known example is Dolly the sheep.