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Nouns can take many forms. Two of those forms are singular and plural. This lesson will teach you the difference and how to make singular nouns plural.

Singular and Plural Nouns

Nouns can take several forms.

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Two of those forms are singular and plural. A singular noun names only one person, place, thing, or idea. A noun that names two or more people, places, things, or ideas is a plural noun.

How do you make a singular noun plural? Most of the time making a singular noun plural is as simple as adding an s to the end of the word.

Singular Plural
bird birds
book books
cat cats
dog dogs
pen pens

However, some nouns don’t follow this rule, and they’re known as irregular nouns. How do I change a singular irregular noun to plural? The next sections will help you answer this question.

Irregular Nouns Plural

First, we will look at singular nouns ending with s, ss, ch, sh, x, or z.

If a singular noun ends with s, ss, ch, sh, x, or z, add es to the end of the noun.Let’s look at some examples:

  • walrus – walruses
  • moss – mosses
  • beach – beaches
  • bush – bushes
  • fox – foxes
  • ditch – ditches

How do I make a noun plural if it ends with an o? I’m glad you asked!If the singular noun ends with a vowel, the letters a, e, i, o, and u, most of the time you just add an s.Some examples include:

  • kangaroo – kangaroos
  • rodeo – rodeos
  • video – videos

Many times, if a singular noun ends with a consonant + o, add an es at the end. Consonants are all the letters of the alphabet except a, e, i, o, and u.Here are a few examples:

  • domino – dominoes
  • echo – echoes
  • potato – potatoes

The best way to know how to correctly spell the plural form of a noun that ends in o is to look it up in a dictionary or online.Another irregular noun is consonant + y. If the singular noun ends in a consonant + y pattern, change the y to i and then add es.

Let’s look at a few examples:

  • bunny – bunnies
  • daisy – daisies
  • kitty – kitties
  • puppy – puppies

If the singular noun ends in a vowel + y pattern, just add an s to the end of the word.For example:

  • days – days
  • donkey – donkeys
  • toy – toys

Now for singular nouns ending in f or fe. If the singular noun ends with a f or fe, change the f or fe to a v and then add es.Examples include:

  • life – lives
  • wolf – wolves
  • wife – wives

Some nouns have the same spelling in both the singular form and the plural form.For example:

  • deer – deer
  • moose – moose
  • salmon – salmon

How do I know if a noun is both singular and plural? If you’re not sure if a noun is both singular and plural, you can either look it up in a dictionary or online.

Now it’s time for spelling changes. Some nouns change spellings when you go from the singular form to the plural form. Some of the common words that change spellings when forming plurals are the following:

  • child – children
  • foot – feet
  • goose – geese
  • man – men
  • mouse – mice
  • ox – oxen
  • woman – women

Lesson Summary

  • Add s or es to the end of most singular nouns to form the plural.
  • Using the spelling of the singular noun will help you determine how to form the plural.
  • Some nouns have the same spelling whether they are singular or plural, such as deer.
  • Some singular nouns are spelled differently when forming the plural form, such as child and children.

Remember, if you aren’t sure how to correctly form the plural form of a singular noun, you can always look it up in a dictionary or online.

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