Simseket. al. (2006) investigated the damage of bark beetles and relation betweencertain tree parameters in Uludag fir (Abiesnordmanniana). It was determined that most common and harmful bark beetleswere Cryphalus piceae Ratz and Ips curvidensGerm in Uludag fir for dominated stands of 50-100 age and 50-40 cm DBH. Afterthe regression analysis carried out it was determined that there werestatistically significant (p < 0.
001) and strong (R2 > 0.50)relationship between DBH, height and crown diametervariables in Uludag firs.Brockerhoffet al. (2006) worked out interceptionfrequency of exotic and ambrosia beetle and relationship with establishment inNew Zealand and World wide.
Over 1500 interceptions were recorded at New Zealandborders between 1950 and 2000. Among the 103 species were Dedroctonus ponderosa, Ipstypographus and other high riskspecies, but actual arrival probably included many more species. Interceptionswere primarily associated with dunnage, case wood, and sown timber, andoriginated from 59 countries mainly from Europe, Australia,North Asia, North America, New Zealandand United States.Interception data were highly correlated and 7 out of 10 most interceptedspecies were shared.Parkeret al. (2006) investigatedinteractions among fire, insects and pathogens in coniferous forests of theinterior Western United States and Canada. They found that natural andrecurring disturbances caused by fire, native forest insects and pathogens haveinteracted for millenia to create and maintain forests dominated by seral orpioneering species of conifers in the interior regions of the Western UnitedStates and Canada.
Eickwortet al. (2006) investigated about Ips engraver beetles in the southern United States.Ips beetles usually colonize onlythose trees that are already stressed, declining or fallen due to otherenvironmental or biotic factors.
Ips alsoreadily colonizes cut logs and slashes and is attracted to fresh Pine odours.Martinet al. (2006) worked out effects ofbark beetle outbreaks on avian biodiversity in British Columbia Interior. Theyreported that mountain pine beetle and fire are the two major naturaldisturbance types structuring mature conifer stands in the interior of theprovince. The temporal changes in value and availability of dead and dying treesand their associated insect fauna are expected to result in stand–levelvariation in wild life populations. They reported that insect outbreaksinitially result in improved conditions for cavity users and many other birdsthat feed on insects in dead and dying trees.
Bentz(2006) investigated mountain pine beetle population sampling inferences fromLindgren pheromone traps and tree emergence cages. He reported that beetlescaught in pheromone traps during the main emergence period from infested treeshad greater whole-body lipids compared to beetles caught early and late inflight season. They also reported that pheromone traps disproportionatelysample mountain pine beetle population and that natural pheromone sources mayinfluence the number and timing of beetle traps caught in synthetically baitedtraps.Mandelshtan(2006) identified new and poorly known species of bark beetles from MiddleAsia. Pityotrichus turkmenicus, thefirst palaearctric representative of the genus, considered earlier to beexclusively American is described from Kopet Dagh. Placement of cyananchophagus cornutus Axentjev, aspecies of the mono typical genus with previously uncertain taxonomic positionin the Scolytidae in the tribe Dryocoetiniis confirmed, where it is close to the genus Triotenus Woll.Hulcret al. (2007) worked on host specificity of ambrosia and platypodidae in a New Guineaforests.
They reported that bark and ambrosia beetles are crucial for woodybiomass decomposition in tropical forests world wide. A total of 81742 beetlesfrom 74 species were reared, 67 of them were identified. Local species richnessof bark and ambrosia beetles were estimated at 80-92 species. Local diversityof both bark and ambrosia beetles is not driven by the local diversity of treesin tropical forests, since ambrosia beetles display no host specificity andbark beetles are species poor and restricted to a few plant families.Dobbertinet al. (2007) worked out that linkingincrease drought stress to Scots pine mortality and bark beetle infestation andreported that incidents of beetle-related pine mortality correlated positivelywith spring and summer temperature, and with the tree-ring based mortalityindex, but not with drought index. The number of advisory cases on the otherhand correlated slightly with summer drought index and temperature, but veryhigh with tree-ring based mortality index.
The tree-ring mortality index andobserved tree mortality increased in years fallowing drought. This wasconfirmed by the beetle emergence from field trees. Following dry summers morethan twice as many trees are colonized by beetles than following wet summers.Buhrooand Lakatos (2007) investigatedbiological characters of Scolytus nitidusand reported that this shot-hole borer overwinters in larval stage on appletrees in Kashmir.
At emergence the adults flyto suitable trees and undergo maturation, feeding for 4-6 days the female laysusually 52 eggs on the average. The eggs hatch in 5-7 days. The larvae have 5instars and complete their development in 38-50 days.
The larvae pupate for 6-8days and finally emerge to attack new trees. The adults live for 45-60 days andtotal life span for this species ranges from 97-124 days.Jenkinset al. (2008) worked on bark beetles,fuels, fire and implications for forest management in the Intermountain west.Bark beetles-caused tree mortality in conifer forests affects the quantity andquality of forests fuels and has long been assumed to increase fire hazard andpotential fire behavior.Peverieriet al. (2008) studied life cycle of Tomicus destruens in a pine forest of Central Italy.
They found that adultsnever showed flight activity in summer, nor did adults reproduce on pines atthat time. Tomicus destruenscompletes one generation per year, it remains to be seen whether some of thebeetles emerging at the beginning of spring are able to start a secondgeneration in the same year.Smithet al.
(2009) investigated lifehistory of secondary bark beetle Pseudipsmexicanus (Coleopteran:Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in lodge pole pine in British Columbia. They reported that P. mexicanus in lodge pole pine wasfound to be polygynous. Galleries were shorter, offspring smaller and the eggslaid per niche and the potential progeny fewer than in populations from California and Guatemala.
Development from thetime of female attack to emergence of adult offspring took less than 50 days at26.5°C and accumulated heat required to complete the life cycle was determinedto be 889.2 degree days above 8.5°C indicating that in the northern portion ofits range P. mexicanus is univoltine.Negronet al. (2009) investigated mortalityin a drought affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona USA and reported thatextensive ponderosa pine mortality is associatedwith a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera:Scolytidae) population occurred in Arizona from (2001 to 2004).
They alsoobserved that pine mortality was in 10-35cm diameter class which comprise muchof the increase in the density over the past century as a result of firesuppression and grazing practices.