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The remaining of the blood will than leave the kidneys through renal vein which doesn’t contain oxygen as oxygen has being used up by the dinned to produce TAP. In return, the renal vein is cleaned. A normal kidney has 3 layers. The outermost layer is called the cortex. The function of cortex is simply by producing ammonia to titrate the acidity of urine. (Ask. Com-Science) Next layer will be medulla. Medulla is the area that is responsible for maintaining blood, salt and water in the body as neoprene are located here to reabsorb water according to the demand of water needed by the body.

The last layer is the pelvis. The major function of this renal pelvis is to act as a funnel for urine to flow until the router. A failed functioning kidney is very harmful for the organism. The organism may suffer and external medical assistance is required to keep the organism alive. Objective: To observe and identify all the major components of the kidney and how they work and carry out an experiment to give an idea about how kidney works by comparing filtered and unfiltered solutions.

Materials: Microscope, Mammalian kidney model, Kidney neoprene slide, Whitman filter paper, Conical flask, Filter funnel, Beirut solution, Benedicts solution, Iodine in potassium iodide solution, Test tubes. Procedures: ) Observation of major structures in a mammalian kidney 1) Kidney model is observed and various important structures in the kidney that is vital for somersaulting is identified. 2)All the main structures are drawn and labeled. The position of neoprene and tubules are indicated. B) Examination of tissue slides under a microscope prepared horizontal or transverse section of mammalian kidney slide is observed. )The slide is held up and to be examined under a lens. The demarcation between cortex and medulla is noted. 3) The cortex is examined under low power. Bowman’s capsule, tubules and capillaries are noticed. )The cortex is then examined under high power. 5)The medulla is observed and examined under high power. 6) High power drawing for each section of cortex and medulla is prepared. C) Analyzing kidney filtration 1) Mil of 1% of protein, 1% of glucose, starch and water are prepared and labeled in 4 different test tubes. 2)1 ml of Beirut solution is added to the test tube labeled protein. )1 ml of Benedicts solution is added to the test tube labeled glucose. The test tube is placed in a water bath in 100 degree Celsius for 5 minutes and is being shaken. 4)1 drop of iodine in potassium iodide is added into he test tube labeled starch. 5)Steps 2-4 is repeated for test tube 4. 6)The test solutions are discarded and test tubes are rinsed. 7)4. Mol of the previous solutions are prepared. 8)Filter paper on a Boucher funnel and a conical flask is prepared. All the contents of each test tubes are poured to the filter paper. The filtered solution is collected in the conical flask. )Steps 2-4 are repeated onto the filtrate. 10) Observations are recorded. Results: A) B) C) Tube Number Color Intensity (before filtration) (- : no presence, + : least intense, ++ : intense, ++4 : most intense) Color Intensity (after filtration) no presence, + : least intense, ++ : intense, +++ : most intense) 1 (Beirut) 2 (Benedicts) 3 (Iodine) 4 (All 3) No color change Discussion: A) A cross-section of a model kidney was observed. The main components of the kidney were identified. First of all, the renal artery and vein are clearly seen.

The renal artery is the big red artery that is going into the kidney. It carries oxygen and waste products ready to be filtered. The arteries branch out to arterioles and then further into capillaries. Then they join back together to form venues and the venues join together to form the renal vein (the big vein blue in color) which leaves the kidney and has no oxygen or waste products since they have been filtered out by the kidney neoprene. B) In this section of the experiment, a light microscope was used to observe the main components of the kidney.

It was possible to identify the Bowman’s capsule, slumberous, the thick and thin sections of loop of Henley and the collecting duct. The Bowman’s capsule is the first part of the neoprene and it wraps almost all of the capillaries and in there is a mesh of capillary networks called the slumberous. This is where alliteration takes place. This process filters UT everything that is present in the capillaries except for red blood cells and some plasma proteins. The wall of the Bowman’s capsule is thin to ease the diffusion process.

All the filtrates then go into the Bowman’s capsule then they pass through the proximal convoluted tubule. The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the neoprene of the kidney which leads from Bowman’s capsule to the loop of Henley. Here almost all of the water and salt is reabsorbed. Then the filtrate now moves on to the loop of Henley where even more salt and water and some nutrients are reabsorbed. Finally the filtrate moves to the electing duct where the remaining water is reabsorbed. C) This experiment was carried out to demonstrate how the kidney works.

A solution of protein, glucose, starch and distilled water were tested. The protein solution was tested with Beirut solution, the glucose with Benedicts solution and starch with iodine in potassium iodide. All solutions gave positive test results: the Beirut solution turned purple, Benedicts solution turned brick red and iodine in potassium iodide turned blue-black. The same test was repeated with the same solutions but this time, the protein, glucose and starch solutions ere filtered before being tested. They all gave the same positive results except this time, all the colors were lighter.

This is due to some proteins, glucose and starch molecules being left as residue on the filter paper. As for water, filter water doesn’t make any difference as the original test, water is just a control for the experiment. Questions: 1) Among the tested substance, which of the compounds passed through the filter paper? Mans: All of them passed through the filter paper. 2) Was there a difference in the intensity of the color that was observed from your initial tests? If so, why? If not, why? Suggest a method to quantify your method. Mans: Yes there was a difference in color intensity.

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