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Seminar CritiquesDiscovery and evolving
history of two genetically related but phenotypically different viruses,
porcine circoviruses 1 and 2. Dr. Gordon Allan. The aim of this seminar was about the Porcine Circoviruses (PCVs). The outcome of this seminar are intended for identification
of PVC and PCV2. The study of this virus will ultimately help towards
characterisation of PCV1 and PVC2 and the diseases associated with PCV2 type.
The objective of the seminar is to gives a representation that how
incorporative teamwork among field of diagnosticians, researcher and
veterinarians can guide to the fast identification, characterisation and
control of a worldwide crucially developing diseases. PCV2 type was occurred as
a major virulence virus for pigs around the globe. The concept is interesting and important because, after the
discovery (1974) Porcine Circovirus (PCV) there were no further studies going
on this virus till 1982 the same discoverer body gives its report on
characterisation and isolation of Porcine
Circoviruses (PCVs. After these findings new report
was published in 1998 by second team along with the author which told that the
non-infective is porcine circovirus type 1is PCV 1 and the isolation and
characterisation of a new porcine circovirus, now called as PCV 2 and this type
is pathogenic. This article attracts the attention in the field of swine health
for further 10 years from that discovery. Resulting in the isolation and
characterisation of a PCV2 virus from infected pigs and the first experiment on
reproduction of lesions in gnotobiotic pigs. Further infection by PCV2 and
research on PCV2 blasted around the globe, and still going on till
today. It has been suggested the main source of porcine circovirus may
not be explained but it is well understood that both PVC1 and PVC 2 viruses are
co-circulated in pigs for many years prior to the occurrence of the global
epidemic. Although the presence of PVC2 can be found back in 1885 in Canada,
Belgium, and Spain, to 1973 in Northern Ireland, 1970 in the UK, and 1969 in
Belgium. According to past reports PCV2 epidemiology was aimed for the
occurrence of the different genotypes of PVC2 and their importance in the
epidemics and the porcine circovirus diseases (PCVDs) around the globe. It has
been recommended that from epidemiological results and observation that PVC2b
is more hazardous type than PVC2a is the accountable infective mediator for the
epidemics in Eastern Canada, Denmark and elsewhere in Europe. The subsequent
findings by author and other reports published would recommend That at first
the sternness and range of epidemic may have been because of the infection by
PCV2 virus. With the help of new and combination of different practises, the
genetic operation of pig lines for increased production and more profit leads
to change in the nutritional practise. Till today there are no answers the
question of why and how the epidemics was occurred. As they start their work in
late nineties. RNAi competent adult Ascaris suum – an opportunity for
the development of a functional genomics platform that supports organism,
tissue and cell based biology in a nematode parasite. Dr. Ciaran J. McCoy.The focus of this paper is on the depth analysis of RNAi in the adult
stage of Ascaris suum. In this paper up to 8 genes have been
observed and each of them shows a significant amount of reduction in the
transcript level. The genes observed seem be equally silenced and are predicted
to be visible in different tissues which will include the neuro-muscular
system. All in all, the paper is very well written and the results are clearly
shown.The main aim of the experiments was to target genes with different
expression patterns that will help in determining whether or not few tissues
are susceptible to RNAi. There is not enough data available which could prove
that the genes chosen (rab-3 & tnc-1) are tissue specific and for the
outcome of this experiment it is very necessary that the genes which are being
targeted need to be tissue specific. As this point is not discussed in the
paper it is one of the drawbacks of this manuscript. There are also a lot of
overlaps and repetition of the texts in the manuscript which could be avoided
as few points have the identical meaning and significance but have been
repeated few times, which needs to be avoided.One of the experiments used in this paper include an injection method
that processes dsRNA directly in a worm, this is possible due to the huge size
of Ascaris suum adult worms but this technique isn’t manageable
with all the parasites and therefore a better option for this process could be
a more robust RNAi.There is not enough experimental evidence for tissue specific expression
of the selected observed genes in Ascaris suum either from in
situ or antibody localization. This needs to be noticed and their expression in
neurons, body wall etc should be qualified and it needs to be shown as it’s
based on the expression of homologous genes. Also, there wasn’t any mention
that there were any phenotypes present or not in any of the RNAi studies.The most important aspect that needs to be addressed in this manuscript
is the further modifications that could enhance RNAi for functional genomics
screening.Nutrition, Endocrine disruption, gene-environmental interactions-
A system biology perspective. Professor Gary HardimanThe focus of this seminar
was on Endocrine disrupting chemicals regulated in the pathways of human and
wildlife. Examination of the effect of the levels of EE2 on zebrafish embryonic
development. Systems approach to human health risk assessment. Bisphenol
disrupts the hepatic epigenome, analysis of level of miRNome in the system.
Global prostate transcriptome in African Americans to European Americans and
the effect of vitamin D3 supplement- Prostate as a sentimental organ for health
disparities.The authors future direction
is expanding on zebrafish as a medium throughput screening system for exposure
to xenoestrogens Exposure methylation changes across life cycle and across
generation in response to xenoestrogens. Improve the percolation clustering
algorithm and develop new tool for AOP analysis. EE2 in contraceptives, EE2 in
the environmental and water sources, effect of EE2 on mankind and wildlife by
drinkable water. effect of eating contaminated sea food (seafood containing
EE2). Refine and publish the miRmatrix tool, explore global differences in 3′
UTRs between zebrafish and human. Examine the role of vitamin D3
supplementation on IncRNAs.There is significant
difference in transcriptome profile of prostate tissue specimens between AA and
AE men. Vitamin D3 supplementation could affect these differences. Study of
twenty-seven test men (10 AA and 17 EA men) were scrutinised and undergo for
prostatectomy. The above test results show that there are fundamental
biological differences within prostate between AA and AE men and suggest that
overexpression of genes associated to the provocative process which may result
into the increased severity and faster progression of prostate. These findings
also suggest that a considerable number of genes that are differntialy
expressed in AA compared to AE men, can be cause by a short cause of vitamin D3
supplementation. Low level of EE2 results into increased eye and body
dimensions, increased Mbp expression in embryonic development of zebrafish and
its affected behaviour   


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