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Self esteem: Baumeister
(1998) defines it as ”self esteem is the evaluative aspect of the self concept
that corresponds to an overall view of the self as worthy or unworthy”. It is
widely used concept both in popular language and in psychology.

Academic achievement: Good
(1973) has defined, academic achievement as knowledge attitude or skill
developed in the school subject usually designed by test scores or by marks
assigned by teacher or by both.

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Literature review

1.1 Self

Nowadays self esteem as one of the influential factor which
affects student’s academic achievement has received increasing attention. Many
studies showed that high self esteem can drive to high academic achievement.
There are a lot of definitions about self esteem. Literally, self esteem is
defined by how much value people place on themselves. Self esteem defined a
highly favorable global evaluation of self and low self esteem defined an
unfavorable of the self. Students with high self esteem, usually feel better
and able to solve their conflicts with other students and are resistant to deal
with problems and failures. However, students with low self esteem are often
faced with problems and difficulties so they may become anxious easily. Self
esteem have three major components: performance self esteem, social self
esteem, and physical self esteem (Heatherton & Polivy, 1991). Academic
achievement is included in performance self esteem, while other people’s
perception belongs to social self esteem. Lastly, physical bodies and
attractions are examples of physical self esteem.

1.2 Academic achievement

Academic achievement was thought as a key criterion to
evaluate one’s total probabilities and abilities. That is why it can be more
pressing for the students to get high academic achievement. According to Khadivi Zand (1982) academic achievement is defined as
self-perception and self-evaluation of objective academic success. There are specific factors that contribute greatly to
academic achievement. First, social acceptance may interrupt the process of the
willingness to strive academically. For example, one study (Bridgeman &
Shipman, 1987) noted that a student motivated to impress a teacher or the other
students has to be distinguished from a child who is motivated to achieve
better grades or to graduate higher in his/her class. Acceptance by a larger
group of students can support a feeling of group belongingness and cohesion
that motivates interest in classroom activities not necessarily in receiving
better grades (Wentzel & Caldwell, 1997). Erickson (1968) identified that
academic achievement played a crucial role in forming a positive, healthy view
of the self. At its highest potential, academic achievement involves a
student’s psychological investment in learning, comprehending and mastering
knowledge (Suh & Suh, 2006). However the most overt public, visible
indicators of academic achievement are school marks or grades. These are
greatly valued as a determinant of one’s success in academics (Rosenberg,

1.3 Self esteem and Academic

Self esteem and academic achievement have close relationship
and have a lasting impact each other. High self esteem plays a highly important
role not only in academic achievements of students but also in social and
personal development as well (Pullmann and Allik, 2008). According to Anthony
(2007) students with high self esteem have comparatively high academic
achievements than students with low self esteem. Self esteem affects all
aspects of the life of an individual, such as, job success, school achievement,
social development and professional development. According to Aryana (2010),
students with high academic achievement tend to feel more confident in contrast
to those who lack confidence in them achieves less. There had been many studies
on this self esteem and academic achievement relationship has been carried out
previously but the topic remains debatable and inconclusive (Naderi, 2009).
Several studies show that self esteem influences academic performance (Haarer,
1964; Jones and Grieneekz, 1970; Lamy, 1965; Morse, 1963; Smith, 1969;
Wattenberg and Clifford, 1964). Research has shown that self esteem is a better
predictor of academic success than measured intelligence (Morse, 1963; Smith,
1969; Wattenberg and Clifford, 1964). Consequently, our thoughts influence our
feelings and behavior and our behavior influence our performance. Finally,
different studies have reached the conclusion that academic achievement and
self esteem are positively correlated. According to Covington (1989) if the
level of self esteem increases, academic achievement will also be increased
but, if the level of self esteem decrease, academic achievement will also be
decreased therefore, he concluded that self esteem can be modified through
direct instruments which can lead to achievement gains.

1.4 Aims and Hypotheses of This Project

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between
self esteem and academic achievement among IUS students. I believe that self
esteem is related to academic achievement and even in every pieces of human’s
life. Without self esteem, people may not reach their goal and may not be
successful enough. My first hypothesis is that there will be statistically
significant relationship between self esteem and academic achievement among
students of IUS. And the second one is there is no
statistically significant difference in terms of
self esteem and academic achievement between male and

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