Self esteem: Baumeister(1998) defines it as ”self esteem is the evaluative aspect of the self conceptthat corresponds to an overall view of the self as worthy or unworthy”. It iswidely used concept both in popular language and in psychology.Academic achievement: Good(1973) has defined, academic achievement as knowledge attitude or skilldeveloped in the school subject usually designed by test scores or by marksassigned by teacher or by both.
Literature review1.1 SelfesteemNowadays self esteem as one of the influential factor whichaffects student’s academic achievement has received increasing attention. Manystudies showed that high self esteem can drive to high academic achievement.There are a lot of definitions about self esteem. Literally, self esteem isdefined by how much value people place on themselves. Self esteem defined ahighly favorable global evaluation of self and low self esteem defined anunfavorable of the self. Students with high self esteem, usually feel betterand able to solve their conflicts with other students and are resistant to dealwith problems and failures. However, students with low self esteem are oftenfaced with problems and difficulties so they may become anxious easily.
Selfesteem have three major components: performance self esteem, social selfesteem, and physical self esteem (Heatherton & Polivy, 1991). Academicachievement is included in performance self esteem, while other people’sperception belongs to social self esteem. Lastly, physical bodies andattractions are examples of physical self esteem.1.2 Academic achievementAcademic achievement was thought as a key criterion toevaluate one’s total probabilities and abilities. That is why it can be morepressing for the students to get high academic achievement.
According to Khadivi Zand (1982) academic achievement is defined asself-perception and self-evaluation of objective academic success. There are specific factors that contribute greatly toacademic achievement. First, social acceptance may interrupt the process of thewillingness to strive academically.
For example, one study (Bridgeman , 1987) noted that a student motivated to impress a teacher or the otherstudents has to be distinguished from a child who is motivated to achievebetter grades or to graduate higher in his/her class. Acceptance by a largergroup of students can support a feeling of group belongingness and cohesionthat motivates interest in classroom activities not necessarily in receivingbetter grades (Wentzel & Caldwell, 1997). Erickson (1968) identified thatacademic achievement played a crucial role in forming a positive, healthy viewof the self.
At its highest potential, academic achievement involves astudent’s psychological investment in learning, comprehending and masteringknowledge (Suh & Suh, 2006). However the most overt public, visibleindicators of academic achievement are school marks or grades. These aregreatly valued as a determinant of one’s success in academics (Rosenberg,1989).1.3 Self esteem and AcademicachievementSelf esteem and academic achievement have close relationshipand have a lasting impact each other. High self esteem plays a highly importantrole not only in academic achievements of students but also in social andpersonal development as well (Pullmann and Allik, 2008). According to Anthony(2007) students with high self esteem have comparatively high academicachievements than students with low self esteem. Self esteem affects allaspects of the life of an individual, such as, job success, school achievement,social development and professional development.
According to Aryana (2010),students with high academic achievement tend to feel more confident in contrastto those who lack confidence in them achieves less. There had been many studieson this self esteem and academic achievement relationship has been carried outpreviously but the topic remains debatable and inconclusive (Naderi, 2009).Several studies show that self esteem influences academic performance (Haarer,1964; Jones and Grieneekz, 1970; Lamy, 1965; Morse, 1963; Smith, 1969;Wattenberg and Clifford, 1964). Research has shown that self esteem is a betterpredictor of academic success than measured intelligence (Morse, 1963; Smith,1969; Wattenberg and Clifford, 1964). Consequently, our thoughts influence ourfeelings and behavior and our behavior influence our performance.
Finally,different studies have reached the conclusion that academic achievement andself esteem are positively correlated. According to Covington (1989) if thelevel of self esteem increases, academic achievement will also be increasedbut, if the level of self esteem decrease, academic achievement will also bedecreased therefore, he concluded that self esteem can be modified throughdirect instruments which can lead to achievement gains.1.4 Aims and Hypotheses of This ProjectThe purpose of this study is to examine the relationship betweenself esteem and academic achievement among IUS students.
I believe that selfesteem is related to academic achievement and even in every pieces of human’slife. Without self esteem, people may not reach their goal and may not besuccessful enough. My first hypothesis is that there will be statisticallysignificant relationship between self esteem and academic achievement amongstudents of IUS. And the second one is there is nostatistically significant difference in terms ofself esteem and academic achievement between male andfemale.