(S.M OWAIS AKHTAR)Group MembersSana shamsS.M Owais AkhtarPir AhsanSubject : Basic EnglishTopic Name : Acid Attacks in PakistanSubmitted to : Madam Mahira MirzaClass Day : ThursdayTiming : 8:30 am to 11:30 amTable of ContentsINTRODUCTIONTOPIC BACKGROUND4REASONS2FINDINGS6SUMMARY7CONCLUSION5OPINION6Introduction Topic Background (Pir Ahsan)Acid throwing is also called an acid attack is very common form of violent act which involve throwing acid on someone face in order to physically torture, harm or disfigure them.
The acid attackers often aim for the face or head of their victim in order to blind or harm them.The most common types of acid used in assault are sulphuric, nitric and hydrochloric acid.At least 1500 attacks are reported globally each year.
The act of throwing acid is considered as a form of gender based violence. The countries that experience the most acid attacks are: Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Cambodia.Most acid attacks are done by the known people to the victims and these attacks are often because of the conflicts in the relationships. Which may include a woman rejecting her marriage proposal or being caught in vulgar actMen are also victims of acid attacks because of the land disputes or individuals attacked by their personal conflicts The majority of acid attacks are against women and children comprising 75% with 95% of the culprits being men.
REASONS: (SANA SHAMS)Individual clashes with respect to insinuate connections, and sexual dismissal In parts of South Asia, corrosive assaults regularly happen as reprisal against a lady who rejects a proposition of marriage or a lewd gesture. Corrosive assaults have been utilized to rebuff wedded ladies if her family can’t or unwilling to pay extra share requested by the spouse or his family. Such assaults are regular in social orders where there is an abnormal state of sex imbalance and ladies possess a subordinate position in connection to men. Clashes over land and property Clashes with respect to legacy and other property issues are a reason for corrosive assaults. Individuals are frequently struck because of land debate.
Posse viciousness and competition Corrosive assaults identified with clashes between criminal packs happen in many spots, going from Pakistan and Bangladesh to Indonesia and Western Europe, with such assaults now occurring in Greece and the United Kingdom. The expectation of the assailant is regularly to mortify as opposed to execute the casualty. In Britain such assaults, especially those against men, are accepted to be underreported, and therefore huge numbers of them don’t appear in official insights. Socially, politically and religiously propelled Assaults against people because of their social or political exercises, or because of their religious convictions likewise happen. These assaults might be focused against a particular individual, because of their exercises, or might be executed against arbitrary people simply on the grounds that they are a piece of a social gathering or group. In Pakistan, female understudies have had corrosive tossed in their appearances as a discipline for going to class. Corrosive assaults because of religious clashes have been accounted for in Tanzania.
In Europe, Konstantina Kouneva, presently an individual from the European Parliament, had corrosive tossed on her in 2008, in what was depicted as “the most extreme ambush on an exchange unionist in Greece for a long time.FINDINGS: (SANA SHAMS)A 50 for each penny decrease has been seen in corrosive wrongdoing cases crosswise over Pakistan since 2014. Notwithstanding, a switch incline is seen in the quantity of kids assaulted in comparative cases in the vicinity of 2013 and 2016, ascending from 15 for every penny to 21.3 for each penny. 2014 was thought to be a basic standard with an aggregate of 153 corrosive assaults revealed in the year. However the predominance of corrosive assaults was settled in 2015 and 2016, as per the report which has been assembled by Acid Survivors Foundation (ASF) as a team with European Union (EU), Group Development Pakistan and National Commission on the Status ofWomen (NCSW).Summary: (S.M OWAIS AKHTAR)A corrosive assault includes the planned tossing of corrosive on a casualty, for the most part all over.
Notwithstanding causing mental injury, corrosive assaults result in extreme agony, lasting distortion, ensuing diseases, and regularly visual deficiency in one or the two eyes. Culprits submit corrosive assaults for various reasons, including revenge for refusal of an engagement proposition or other sentimental or lewd gestures; arrive question; saw shame; and desire. While corrosive assaults are most common in Bangladesh, Cambodia, India and Pakistan, they have additionally been accounted for in Afghanistan and in parts of Africa and Europe. Specialists property the commonness of the training to a limited extent to the simple accessibility of acids. Enactment tending to corrosive assaults ought to incorporate the accompanying components: Enactment ought to characterize a corrosive assault as any ambush executed using corrosive. Since corrosive assaults might be propelled by one of a few distinct reasons, enactment should concentrate on the demonstrations that constitute the wrongdoing, as opposed to the intention; Enactment ought to punish any individual who submits a corrosive assault, particularly including relatives among the individuals who might be punished; Enactment ought to punish the individuals who help and abet this unsafe practice, and ought to incorporate relatives among the individuals who might be punished; Enactment should make corrosive assaults a “transferable expectation” wrongdoing, giving similar punishments paying little respect to whether the individual harmed was the proposed casualty; Enactment ought to accommodate punishments of jail time, fines, and training; Enactment ought to preclude the acknowledgment of casual money related settlement or marriage as settlement of cases; Enactment ought to give that condemning rules mirror the gravity of the offense; Enactment ought to accommodate improved punishments if a casualty bites the dust because of a corrosive assault. The culprit ought to be indicted under the murder statutes of the correctional code. The particular law on the corrosive assault ought to give a term of detainment and fine which is no less extreme than what is given under the murder statutes of the general correctional code except for the death penalty; Enactment ought to give that no intercession arrangements are a piece of enactment on corrosive assaults; Enactment ought to control the fare, import, utilize, deal, and waste administration of acids; Enactment ought to require venders of acids to obtain licenses; Enactment ought to criminalize the unlicensed offer of acids; Enactment ought to require venders of acids to make and keep up a record of every deal and the personality of every buyer; Enactment ought to require merchants of corrosive to take every single important measure to guarantee that their provisions of corrosive are not stolen and promptly report any stolen corrosive; Enactment ought to force an obligation upon medicinal suppliers to report all instances of substantial damage caused by corrosive to law implementation; Enactment should order that cops explore any case detailed by a medicinal supplier where real damage was caused by corrosive; Enactment should set up and subsidize open mindfulness crusades and preparing for all areas about this hurtful practice and its results; Enactment and different practices that propagate this unsafe practice, for example, respect wrongdoings, ought to be revised or canceled; Enactment ought to enable casualties to seek after common cures against their assailants.
Money related harms ought to incorporate the cost of reconstructive surgery; Enactment ought to accommodate compensation or reparations isolate from any criminal case and give components of accumulation that the casualty may effectively use to gather the request for compensation from the culprit; Enactment ought to likewise give that a court may change or issue a request for compensation at a later time if the genuine degree of the survivor’s misfortune was not known at the season of the hearing on the compensation ask for or at the season of manner of the case; and Enactment ought to give legitimate, money related, therapeutic, and different sorts of restoration administrations for casualties. Enactment ought to give lawful help earlier and amid the criminal trial of a corrosive assault and be stretched out to casualties and witnesses who are debilitated by culprits or related gatherings; .Conclusion: (PIR AHSAN) Mostly Women in modern Pakistan have faced acid attack violence in their household, place of work and in the society at larger scale.
Statistics compiled by the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan which shows that 46 acid attacks occurred in Pakistan during 2004 and decreased with only 33 acid assaults reported for 2007. According to a New York Times article, in 2011 there were 150 acid attacks in Pakistan, up from 65 in 2010.The victims of acid attacks are usually females. In Pakistan, more than 50% of the cases are of acid throwing and it has been estimated and among them more than 90% cases have been undecided because the victim of acids are mostly the poor people and in Pakistan. The silence of women and unreporting of the crime to the Government authorities is the main reason why the perpetrators of crime against women are roaming free According to a report that approximately 65% cases of acid and burn victims were women and girls and 15% were children.
80% of the survivors earn less than Rs8,000 per month. The police do not even dare to arrest the rich people, creating a huge effect on the increasing rate acid cases in Pakistan. Opinion: (PIR AHSAN)There are no specific laws against acid attacks in our country. According to the organizations working on acid attacks mostly the victims of acid attacks are woman.There should be strict law and order against the perpetrators so that no one can do this act again by thinking its harsh punishment The victims of acid attacks should be given complete legal support to ensure that they do not have to struggle a lot to get justice The open sale of acids should be controlled and banned by the Government. For industrial, commercial and all other purposes, it may be sold but under licensed dealers so that no one can buy it for using in throwing purposeThe Government must take steps to rehabilitate acid attacks survivor with counselling and other provisions. REFERENCES: (SANA SHAMS)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid_throwinghttps://tribune.com.pk/story/1333711/asf-report-acid-throwing-cases-post-sharp-decline/