In this lesson we fly through the various characteristics of Romanesque architecture: the semicircular arch, various sorts of vaulting, heavier construction, and the addition of increasingly intricate exteriors incorporating towers, arcades, and decorative sculpture.
Trends in Romanesque Architecture
For a thousand years since the death of Christ, most Christian architectural movements occurred from the top down. Early Christian architecture started with the vision of Emperor Constantine. Byzantine architecture was part of a building project started by Emperor Justinian. Carolingian architecture got its start with Emperor Charlemagne.Romanesque architecture is different.
The Romanesque architectural movement was not one of these top-down imperial building projects. It was more like a grassroots movement that took off independently in a variety of places from Italy to England, each with its own unique take on this new form.Yet they all have a few things in common.
They all seem fixated on the semicircular arch. They all had intricately decorated exteriors, especially on their western entrances. Unlike their predecessors, they decked out their buildings out with decorative sculpture, towers, and arcades. They all make use of a vaulted masonry ceiling rather than a wooden one. This heavy masonry ceiling required heavier construction. This meant thick walls with few windows and little light. It also meant supplementing or replacing delicate round columns with sturdier square piers.
Let’s have a look at each of these elements.
The Semicircular Arch
The semicircular arch was very popular in the Roman Empire. This similarity is likely where the term ‘Romanesque’ originated. The semicircular arch is strong and durable.
Romanesque architects love this arch, and they use it everywhere: doors, windows, ceilings, arcades.
Romanesque architects were nothing if not ambitious. Not only did they want to build huge new churches, but they also wanted to roof those churches with masonry, not wood. Now, you can’t just run masonry horizontally; you can’t build a ceiling like you would a wall. The pieces would fall out.
To tackle this problem, Romanesque architects turned to their favorite form: the semicircular arch. An arch allows you to build unsupported openings out of masonry. It only took a little bit of cleverness to stretch this arch out, making a sort of tunnel. When this arched tunnel is used to roof a building, it’s called vaulting.
There were three sorts of vaulting popular in Romanesque times. First was the barrel vault. Next came the groin vault, which was later improved to ribbed vault.
Vaulting: Barrel Vault
The barrel vault is the simplest sort of vaulting.
It’s just a semicircular arch stretched along a single axis. The barrel vault had been around for a very long time. We see its use in ancient Egypt and Rome. Earlier Medieval churches had also made use of this technique, but its use was modest, and, with a few exceptions, underground. With the Romanesque, we see barrel vaults get pushed to their limits.
Vaulting: Groin Vault
So the barrel vault works nicely for covering a long hall, like the basilicas of old. But by this time, churches didn’t just have one axis but several axes. The use of a transept, or a crossing part of a church, had become a standard in the West during Carolingian times. So what happens when two barrel vaults meet at a right angle? The solution is the groin vault.
Another big Romanesque development was the building of towers. We can see predecessors to this trend in Carolingian westworks, or grand facades on the western entrance of the building. These trends really take off during the Romanesque on the western face of the church and at the eastern end of the church.
Another sort of tower that was very popular, especially in Italy, were free-standing bell towers known as campaniles. The most famous of these campaniles is the Leaning Tower of Pisa.
At Pisa we also see the one of the best examples of the Romanesque arcade, which is a row of archways. An arcade is just like a colonnade, except with arches instead of columns.