Research Paper Summary COURSE TITLE : Data Communication COURSE CODE : CSE-2207Topic: cyber crimeSUBMITED TO :Tania IslamLecturerDepartment of Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of Barisal, Barisal, Bangladesh.SUBMITED BY: Hridoy Roy Nadira Aktar Roll No:16CSE-014 Roll No: 16CSE-017 Session:2015-16 Session:2015-16 Departmentof Computer science and Engineering . University of Barisal.
Introduction :Crime andcriminality have been paired with man since his flop. Crime is the directopposite of development. Crime interrupts the development of a country.
Itleaves a negative social and economic Impact. It is very hard to classifycrimes in general into distinct groups. But most common crime in today’s lifeis cybercrime. Cybercrime is judged as crimes committed on the internet usingthe computer as either a tool or a targeted victim. All cybercrimes involve boththe computer and the person behind it as victims. The term ‘cyber crime’ is amisnomer.
The thought of cyber crime is not completely different from the ideaof conventional crime. Both include conduct of omission, which break the rulesof law. Before evaluating the concept of cyber crime it is badly needed to haveconcept of conventional crime. 1 Cyber Crime :Cyber-crime isthe latest and perhaps the most talked problem in the cyber world. Ageneralized definition of cyber crime may be an unlawful acts wherein the computeris either a tool or target or both. A cyber attack isan attack initiated from a computer against a website, computer system orindividual computer. The computer may be used as a tool in the followingkinds of activity financial crimes, sale of illegal articles, pornography, cyberdefamation, cyber stalking. The computer may however be target for unlawfulacts in the following cases unauthorizedaccess to computer system/ computernetworks, theft of information contained in the electronic form, email bombing,data loot, logic bombs, internet time thefts, web jacking, theft of computersystem, physically damaging the computer system.
1Cyber-crimeand cyber security are issues that can hardly be separated in an interconnectedenvironment. Cyber security plays an important role in the ongoing developmentof information technology. The legal, technical and institutional challengesposed by the issue of cyber security are global and far-reaching, and can onlybe addressed through a coherent strategy taking into account the role of differentstakeholders and existing initiatives, within a framework of internationalcooperation.
4 Tool, Target andCriminals of Cyber Crime : The cyber criminals may be categorized inthe following category. · Children and adolescents between the age group of 10– 18 years involves with cyber crime due to the inquisitiveness to know andexplore the things.· Organized hackers are mostly embodiedtogether to fulfill certain objective.· Professional hacker’s work is motivated by the colourof money. These are mostly employed to hack the site to get valuableinformation. · Discontented employees normally hackthe system of their employee due to dissatisfaction with their employer.Itis known that any mental or physical torture occurred via internet consideredas cyber crime, so it is clear that a tool that directly or indirectly involvewith crime is considered as a crime tool.
It may be mobile phone or any device.But mostly these criminals uses computer as a crime tool. And maximum timecomputer uses as a target also.
Reasonsfor Cyber Crime : The Concept of Law has said human are inrisk so rule of law is required to protect them. Applying this to thecyberspace we may say that computers are vulnerable so rule of law is requiredto protect cyber crime. The reasons for the vulnerability of computers may besaid to be: · Capacity to store data in comparatively small space: The computerhas unique characteristic of storing data in a very small space. This affordsto remove or derive information either through physical or virtual medium makesit much easier. · Easy to access: The problem encountered in guarding a computersystem from unrecognized access is that there is every possibility of breachnot due to human error butdue to the complex technology. Bysecretly implanted logic bomb, key loggers that can steal access codes, advancedvoice recorders; retina imagers etc. that can fool biometric systems and bypassfirewalls can be utilized to get past many a security system.
· Complex: The computers work on operating systemsand these operating systems in turn are composed of millions of codes. Humanmind is fallible and it is not possible that there might not be a lapse at anystage. The cyber criminals take advantage of these lacunas and penetrate intothe computer system. · Negligence: Negligence is very closely connectedwith human conduct. It is therefore very probable that while protecting thecomputer system there might be any negligence, which in turn provides a cybercriminal to gain access and control over the computer system. · Loss of evidence: Loss of evidence is a very common& obvious problem as all the data are routinely destroyed. Furthercollection of data outside the territorial extentalsoparalyses this system of crime investigation.
12 Blastings due to CyberCrime : · Unauthorized access to computer systems or Hacking:Thiskind of crime is known as hacking.Today’s Criminals are going to access other’s computer to take data or whateverhe needed. · Theft of information contained in electronic form: Informationstored in computer hard disks, removable storage media and theft may be eitherby appropriating the data physically or by tampering them through the virtualmedium. · Email bombing: This kind of activity refers tosending large numbers of mail to the victim. By this when a valuable e-mailneed to find the mail servers my be ultimately crashed. · Data diddling: This kind of an attack involves alteringraw data just before a computer processes it and then changing it back afterthe processing is completed.
· Salami attacks: This kind of crime is normally purposeof committing financial crimes. An important feature of this type of crime isthat the alteration is so small that it would normally go unnoticed. Forexample only 10 cents are deducted from each account and store it in aparticular account. · Denial of Service attack: The computer ofthe victim which cause it to Crash by this type of crime.
Distributed Denial ofService attack is also a type of denial of service attack. · Virus attacks: It can be defined as viruses are programs that fix themselves to a computeror a file and then move themselves to other files and to other computers on a network.They usually affect the data on a computer, either by altering or deleting it.For today’s life it is very common and well-known problem. · Logic bombs: These are event dependent programs.
Thisimplies that these programs are created to do something only when a certainevent occurs even some viruses may be termed logic bombs. · Trojan attacks: This means an unauthorized programme,which passively gains control over another’s system by representing itself asan authorized programme. · Internet time thefts: Normally in these kinds ofthefts the Internet surfing hours of the victim are used up by another person.This is done by gaining access to the login ID and· thepassword. It is another well-known and familiar crime. · Web jacking: This term is derived from the term hijacking.
In these kinds of offences the hacker gains access and control overthe web site of another. He may even mutilate or change the information on thesite. This may be done for fulfilling political objectives or for money.Recently the site of Ministry of Information Technology was hacked by the Pakistani hackers.1 Actionsto prevent or reduce the risk of cyber attacks : · Save the company’s database on a different webserver .· Applying the latest securitypatches.
· Protecting all passwords. · Using read-only views ofdocuments and materials when possible. · Maintaining strict inputvalidation. · Developing network securityarchitecture. · Monitoring activities andprocedures of third-party contractors with access to the computer system · Performing network scans toassess activity on the network.
· Adopta Cyber Incident Response Plan · AdoptProcedures to Preserve Evidence · The board of directors, CEO, CFO and other senior management mustsupport the CCO in preventing cyber attacks. The CCO should create and maintainrelationships with federal, state and local law enforcement . · Every company should developa written cyber incident response plan) that identifies cyber attack scenarios contains· Response team., Reporting, Initial response, Investigation,Recovery and follow-up, Public relations, Law enforcement. · Develop the cyber incidentresponse plan. · Identify and classify cyberattack scenarios. · Determine the tools andtechnology used to detect and prevent attacks. · Secure the company’scomputer network.
· Develop a checklist forhandling initial investigations of cyber attacks. · Conduct any investigationswithin the determined scope. · Shouldtake Initial response to a cyber attack · Investigatinga cyber attack · Publicannouncements and public relations after a cyber attack · Lawenforcement investigations of cyber attacks · LawEnforcement Agencies that Investigate Internet Crime· Identifyingthe hackers 37 Conclusion : The cyber crime as a wholerefers to Offences that are committed against individuals or groups ofindividuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of thevictim or cause physical or mental harm to the victim directly or indirectly,using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails,notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS). A computer can be asource of evidence.
Even when a computer is not directly used for criminalpurposes, may contain records of value to criminal investigators. so thenetwork must be secure as no one can access the information of the computer.4 References:1. Cyber Crime in the Society: Problems and Preventionsby Kamini Dashora, PhD, Principal, P.
P.Patel College of Social Sciences, (Affiliated Sardar Patel University,Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India) 2. Organizations and Cyber crime: An Analysis of the Nature of Groupsengaged in Cyber Crime by Roderic Broadhurst, Peter Grabosky, Mamoun Alazab& Steve Chon ANUCybercrime Observatory, Australian National University, Australia 3. Cybercrime and the Victimization of women: Laws,Rights and Regulations byHalder D., Jaishankar K. 4.
Cyber crime andsecurity by Shilpa Yadav,Tanu Shree 5. Crime Data Mining: An Overview and Case Studies by Hsinchun Chen, Wingyan Chung, Yi Qin, Michael Chau,Jennifer Jie Xu, Gang Wang, Rong Zheng. 6. Sex, Lies and Cybercrime Surveys by Dinei Florencio andCormac Herley 7. CyberAttacks: Prevention and Proactive Responses byVince Farhat, Bridget McCarthy andRichard Raysman,