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If so, what were they? The purpose of this exercise is to learn the anatomy and over all composition of how the heart works and the blood flows through the four chambers of the heart. Always follow the Labials MASS: Material Safety Data Sheet and do all dissection / use in well-ventilated area. Exercise 1 : Microscopic Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle Observations Sketch and label your slide in the space provided. Include a description of the structures you observed on the slide. Cardiac muscle cardiac muscle Questions A. What are some unique structural features of cardiac muscle?

The cardiac muscle is essentially limited to the heart. As far as the structural features include a striated appearance that allows for strong muscle contractions, but it also differs from skeletal muscle. Although the cells are much shorter, so they are called monocots rather than fibers. Cardiac muscle is considered involuntary because it is not usually under conscious control; it contracts even if all nerve connections to it are severed. Cardiac muscle’s role is to pump blood oxygenated blood containing nutrients to body tissues and degenerated blood to the lungs to receive oxygen.

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B. What are intercalated discs and what do they do? Present in cardiac muscle are intercalated discs, which are connections between two adjacent cardiac cells. The intercalated discs functions are to support synchronized contraction of cardiac tissue. C. Why does cardiac muscle have to be both elastic and strong? Cardiac muscles and smooth muscles are called involuntarily controlled muscles; the cardiac muscle is strong and elastic so it can pump adapted for carrying high- pressure blood. D.

Which of the three layers of the heart did the tissue used to make your slide originate from? Cardiac muscles consist of the heart is surrounded by a fluid filled sac called he pericardium, then there are divided into three layers the bacterium (outer protective layer of the heart), myocardium (muscular middle layer wall of the heart), and undecorated (inner layer of the heart that is continuous with the inner lining of blood vessels). Our slide was made from the myocardium. Exercise 2: The Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits Questions A.

Trace the flow of blood through the pulmonary and systemic circuits. Begin in the right atrium and end in the superior/inferior even cave. Be sure to list every vessel, heart chamber, and heart valve the blood flows through. Blood passes through the pulmonary and systemic circuits from the body, which gets returned to the heart through the superior even cave where it enters the first of four chambers of the heart in the right atrium first. It then would pass through the tricuspids valve and into the right ventricle.

From there it WOUld pass through the pulmonary valve and go through the pulmonary arteries and into the lower lobes of the lungs. The lungs will then oxygenate the blood and it returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins, where this blood flow enters the heart chamber called the left atrium. It then travels through the material valve and into the left ventricle. As the heart pumps, the blood then exits the heart through the aortic valve, and goes out the aorta where the blood is then carried to the brain and other vital organs of the body and tissue.

B. Explain what you learned from the online human heart dissection. Learned on the online human heart dissection how the heart blood flows works, the anatomy, the four valves, four chambers both left and right (two atrium and two ventricles) structures operate, muscle structures, ridges of the ventricles and septum, and the lungs work together for blood flow. Exercise 3: Sheepshearers Dissection/Cat Heart Dissection and Comparison A. Compare the structure of the fetal pig heart and sheep heart. How are they similar? How are they different?

They both share the same anatomic structures, seeing as it is a characteristic of mammals to have four chambered hearts. The main difference is that the sheep heart is bigger than the fetal pig’s. B. Why is the heart referred to as a double pump? The heart is referred to being a double pump because of the division. The heart is divided into two pump portions, with the left side contains oxygenated blood ND the right side contains the degenerated blood. One right pump carries the degenerated blood to the lungs while the left pump will carry the oxygenated blood to the other parts of the brain and body system organs.

C. There are four valves in the heart. Name each valve, list its location and give its function. The heart is divided into four valves. The four valves are two on the right side that carry the degenerated blood starting in the upper right chamber called the right atrium passing through the tricuspids valve, into the right ventricle, passing wrought the pulmonary valve, into the pulmonary trunk where the degenerated blood is carried into the pulmonary artery of the lungs to be oxygenated in the lower lobes of the lungs called alveoli.

The left side upper chamber of the heart will carry the oxygenated blood into the left atrium, passing through the material valve, into the left ventricle, then passing through the aortic valve into the aorta; where the oxygenated blood will be carried to all vital organs such brain, liver, kidneys, muscles and tissues. The four heart valves make sure that blood always flows freely in a forward erection and that there is no backward leakage. As blood leaves each chamber of the heart, it passes through a specific valve to be carried for a certain function.

D. Compare the left and right sides of the dissected heart. What differences do you see? The differences between the left and the right sides are that the left wall is much thicker the placement of artery that carries the blood flow. The left atrium have vaccinate muscles lining the inner wall. The right atrium and the right ventricle, these membranes are connected to flaps of muscle called the papillary muscles by tendons called the chordate adenine. E. Compare and contrast the functions of the atria and the ventricles.

The contrast of the two upper atrium are smaller in size and have thinner flexible muscle tissue that store the blood in the atria then will push accumulated blood supply all at once into the ventricles, which are the stronger bottom chambers called the ventricles pushing into either the lungs and aorta. F. List and describe the functions of the three layers of the heart wall The three layers of the heart are the bacterium (outer protective layer of the heart), myocardium (muscular middle layer wall of the heart), and undecorated inner layer of the heart that is continuous with the inner lining of blood vessels).

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