Refugee integration in the American society is an ongoing developmental goalthat the United States government has upheld, with the agenda of being ahumanitarian nation. This research paper focuses on the refugee integrationprograms in the American society and the immigrants’ resettlement programsbeing put in place to enhance the refugee contribution to the United States.Refugee integration programs are designed to assist refugees to start a life of their own in the Americaneconomy (Jie Zong, 2017). It focuses onproviding preliminary job opportunities to refugees and immigrants for alimited period of time. This program hastheir advantages but also faced with challenges.
To limit most of the refugeeintegration programs, the government is shifting focus towards refugeeresettlement programs, which seek to see immigrants’ housing needs provided for. The refugee and immigrant problemin the United States have been persistentsince it is a developed country, which isperceived to have better opportunities for people hence the decision by peopleto migrate from their harsh political and economic nations. In the UnitedStates, the refugee population is seen to be from nations experiencingreligious and political instability such as Syria, Iraq, Somalia, and Iran (Michael Ignatieff, 2016).
The United StatesPresident, Donald Trump, during his campaigns intended to push the Islamrefugees through advanced vetting procedures, which may nations termed selfishand non-humanitarian. However, the United States has not put an end to itsrefugee accommodation programs. In this research, we will focus on elaboratingthe refugee integration and immigrant resettlement programs in the UnitedStates. The research will contrast the needs of the refugees and immigrantswith what the American Society offers to them.
Refugee population in the United StatesThe United States has been a global refugee hub for many refugees,immigrants and asylum seekers especially because of the wars in some countries (AmericanImmigrationCouncil, 2015). In 2017, the formerUnited States President Barack Obama increased the number of refugees that wereaccepted in the United States from a population of 75,000 to 110,100. However, this project did not last long after hisretirement. The now United States President Donald Trump has enacted legislation against refugee integration andresettlement. The ordered the suspension of refugee resettlement program forfour months and reduced the number of refugee acceptance from 110,000 to 50,000in 2017.
This law has been challenged by humanitarian organizations and hasbeen blocked from implementation until the legislation is well integrated. According to the Migration Policy Institute, only one percent of therefugees in the United States has been resettledannually. Based on this research, it shows the need to incorporate refugeeneeds into policy-making so as to improve their contribution to the economy.
Refugee acceptance ceilings in the United States are made by the president. Thelatest ceiling by Trump of 50,000 refugees is a reduction from the previous110,000, which was proposed, Obama.Trump’s administration is not accommodative of refugee admission in the UnitedStates, with claims that it a threat to security and the economy of the nation.He proposed vetting procedures to existent refugee placement programs and thejurisdictions put in place to facilitate refugee admission. This move portrays a nation that is disintegratingfrom refugee protection and care since it does not maximize the United Statescapability of being a refugee seeking nation and providing better opportunitiesto the refugees and immigrants. The refugee reduced admission ceiling has seenrefugee acceptance reduce, whereby April2017, only an approximate value of 42000 refugees has been accepted in theUnited States. This is a notable drop from the 2016 recordings. Reasons why the United States is a preferredrefugee hub.
The United States has been a home for many refugees fleeing fromdifferent countries (UNHCR, 2013). The acceptance ofrefugees in the United States is usually initiated by the United Nations High Commissionfor Refugees (UNHCR) in their origin countries and is facilitated by theDepartment of State’s Bureau for Population, Refugees, and Migration in the United States to verifyand guarantee your acceptance. Many refugees accepted in the United States havefled from their countries due to harsh conditions and persecutions. However,there is the need for refugees to searchfor a better life in the United States.
For acceptance to be approved in theUnited States, the countries national definition for refugees must be met andproof that the acceptance is a necessity rather than an option. The differencebetween refugees and migrants is that refugees seek acceptance due to harshconditions in their country while immigrants seek acceptance in search of abetter life. Refugee and immigrants recommendation to the United States isusually conducted by the International Rescue Committee, just like refugees arerecommended to other countries. However, the refugee must be compliant with the United States refugee rules andprovisions for admission to be approved. The United States offers three options to refugees in the country;voluntary repatriation, local integration, andresettlement. Voluntary repatriation is where the refugee voluntarily returnsto their country of origin once calm and safety regainin their nations.
Local integration is where the refugee is accepted in thecountry and is provided with basic life’s sustainability necessities such aseducation, food, employment and housing until stability is achieved by therefugee. Resettlement involves giving the refugee permanent residence whenthere is no other guarantee of their legal and physical safety in their homecountries. In this research, we will focus on the refugee integration programsand the refugee and immigrant resettlement programs in the United States.
Thisis because there have had an increase inthe use of this strategies to attend tothe humanitarian needs of the refugees and the immigrants.The refugee integration programs in theUnited StatesThe refugee integration programs seek to provide security to refugeeswho fear prosecution in their home countries and seek a safe haven in theUnited States (HIAS, 2014). To the advantage ofthe United States, the refugees contribute to the American economy since theyprovide labor force and bring the vitalityto the areas with decreasing populations.The refugee integration program is a progressive and time-based program thatintends to slowly absorb refugees in the American economy.
The benefits the integration programs offer to refugees vary dependingon the individual refugee is accepted to the nation. However, there are generalbenefits achieved by each refugee regardless of the scenario. The refugeeacquires safety from their country of origin through the integration program.The program offers job opportunities to adult refugees for a limited period oftime to help them acquire opportunities to shape their lives and develop a sustainability and self-dependency grounds forthem. The program offers education accessibility to refugee children. Thegreatest benefit derived for the children is that it offers them a lifetime keyto the world through education. It givesequal opportunities to the children in the education system and offers themspecific automatic integration of them as Americans. These children grow to have asafe and well-growing attitude, which isused later in life when the children grow up to grow the American economy.
Theintegration program allows learning of the English international language tothose refugees who do not know on BasicEnglish. The program offers them the opportunity for international exposuresince they can use one of the internationally recognized languages. The programoffers the opportunities for the refugees to grow economically since they areprovided equal opportunities with other Americans to venture into the economy.They can also venture into investments and innovations, which contributetowards the growth of the economy. In addition, it offers the United Statesfree labor delivery, which is an important factor of production that the UnitedStates needs to accommodate for its growing and demanding economy andproduction capabilities. The refugee integration program is an eye-openerto many refugees who gain from the admission in the United States.
Theintegration program is the basis for the refugee and immigrant resettlementprograms. It provides the basic guidelines on how refugee and immigrants oughtto be accepted and treated while in the United States. The integration programsgive insights into the development of theresettlement programs. At times, the refugee and immigrants resettlementprograms would be considered to be a subsetof the refugee integration programs already in place. However, the resettlementprogram is an upgrade of the integration program since it incorporates theneeds of the refugees and immigrants more towards complete acceptance in theUnited States.
The refugee and immigrant resettlementprograms in the United StatesThe United States resettlement program for refugees and immigrants seeksto offer residence and a decent living for the refugees and immigrants who areadmitted in the country (FARACI, 2015). Compared to therefugee integration program, the program incorporates the needs of theimmigrants. It assumes that people eligible for acceptance in the United Statesought to be offered a decent life other than an unsustainable livingenvironment. The program considers the needs of the refugees and those of theimmigrants to be similar since both of them are in search of the basic drive togrow and develop in a friendlier environment than their home country. Theresettlement program is also based on the United States quest to be ahumanitarian nation and maintain the status. Recently, the United States hasbeen recognized world’s largest resettlement policymaker for refugees andimmigrants.
The platforms created by the program seeks to identify and realizethe needs of the immigrants and refugees and how they will be beneficial to theeconomy. The United States resettlement program is coordinated by The Departmentof Homeland Security, The State’s Department’s Bureau for Population, Refugees andMigration and The Office of Refugee Resettlement (OfficeOfRefugeeResettlement, 2015). Once the UnitedStates embassies and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees havereferred a refugee for placement, the United States Department of HomelandSecurity offers clearance to the refugee after a thorough security background check to ensure the refugee does notpose security threats to the nation. Thereafter, the State’s Department’sBureau for Population, Refugees, andMigration takes over in the allocation and coordination of admissions into the country. The department assigns therefugees cities they will reside in and to resettlement agencies that can helpthem settle for a decent living. Thereare many voluntary agencies in the united states, that freely offer their help to see to it that the refugees and theimmigrants allocated to the country are well embraced and developed in orderfor them to make a contribution to the economy. The department organizes withthe national voluntary agencies through their affiliates to welcome therefugees and immigrants into the city of allocation and offers direction tothem in regard to housing and accessibility of other essential resources. TheOffice of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) at the State Health and Human Servicesprovides medical assistance, short-term survival cash and case managementservices to the refugees and immigrants welcomed to the place.
The officetargets at offering self-sufficiency to the refugees and immigrants through jobreadiness and employability service classes that are offered. In addition, theoffice intends to facilitate the successfultransition of the refugee and immigrants from their previous harsh andtormenting situations to a more sustainable environment. Challenges faced in the implementation of the refugee integrationprogram and the refugee and immigrant resettlement programs in the UnitedStatesRefugee admission, placement, allocation, and coordination is not an easy task for the United Statesgovernment (Michael Ignatieff, 2016). The programs havefaced rejection, especially by thecurrent president Donald Trump. However, the programs are still in existent toserve the refugees and immigrants despite the challenges they face. Theprograms are built due to the humanitarian diversity of the United States.
Inexecution of their humanitarian obligation, the nation expose itself tointernational threats such as terrorism, human trafficking, and drug substance trade.The United States government fails to achieve optimum refugee assistancedue to the increased cases of international insecurity (MigrationPolicyInstitute, 2015). The governmentfears that openly letting the refugees exposes them to security breachesespecially because most refugees are Muslims, who are stereotyped to beassociated with terrorism.
It is a stereotype but the security agencies cannotafford to ignore the possibility of such a situation occurring. There is alsothe aspect of human trafficking, which is often coordinated through immigrantsprograms by large companies who seek to acquire forceful labor. To mitigatethis risk, the government becomes strict on the acceptance of refugees andimmigrants. There is economic pressure on the nation. The refugees andimmigrants are not well developed hence they have little or no contribution tothe economy. This leaves the responsibility fortheir support and sustainability to government departments, which are funded bythe government. The investment in the refugees and immigrants is not often paidback even after they are self-sufficient and independent. Lastly, the programsare fully implemented since the government needs to balance between keepingtheir people in a sustainable economy and their obligation to being a humanitarian nation.
The economy oftheir people comes first and there refugee and immigrant admission is not apriority. In conclusion, the United States contribution to the refugees andimmigrants resolution cannot be ignored. The country has allowed the refugeeintegration program and the refugee and immigrant resettlement programs to beput in place. Other than the programs in place, the United States has supportedhumanitarian organizations in achieving refugee support by ensuring that refugees’children have access to education and resources for survival. The government throughits projects ensure that the refugees and immigrants accepted in the UnitedStates have access to education, finance, job placement, food and water,security and investment opportunities. The government through the variousdepartments ensures that the refugees and immigrants’ decency of life isachieved through the basic provision ofhousing and food to them. The departments are supported by voluntary nationaland international agencies, whose purpose is to help refugees and immigrantsresettle successfully in the city they have been allocated. This researchidentifies that the refugee and immigrant’s coordination is not an easy taskfor the United States since it put its self under economic, social andpolitical pressures in its mission to fulfill its obligation to thehumanitarian communities and conventions.
Lastly, the country exposes itself toother international threats that are brought by the refugees and immigrantssuch as terrorism. This research focuses on identifying the United Statesstructure of refugee and immigrants’ admission and allocation in the state andthe contribution it has in making their life better.