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I. Introduction and Purpose of Literature Review

Before I started teaching reading groups this year, the reading specialist told me a little bit about the Question Answer Relationship strategy, better known as QAR, and how I should implement it into my lessons. I saw that QAR instruction really got the students thinking and helped the gain a better understanding of the text they were reading. However, I did not know much about the QAR method and why it worked. I wanted to gain a better understanding of the strategy and find researched-based information pertaining to the following questions:

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1. What are the benefits of the QAR strategy?2. What is the role of both the student and the teacher when using the QAR strategy?3. What is the importance of using the QAR strategy?4. What research has been done to prove the effectiveness of the QAR teaching strategy on reading comprehension?

The QAR strategy was developed by Taffy Raphael as a means to clarify how students should approach the task of reading the text and answering questions based on it. The strategy displays a three-way relationship between the text, questions, and the reader. The QAR method divides comprehension questions into the two categories: “In the Book”, and “In My Head.” It then breaks each category down into two subcategories. These categories help the student recognize the need to consider both the information in the text and information from their own previous knowledge in order to answer the question. QAR instruction provides a balance for the students so they should not run into the problem of over relying on either their background knowledge or the text information. Often, when students have trouble answering text-based questions, the t…

…sion and testtaking across grades and content areas. The Reading Teacher, 59(3), 206.

Rosenshine, B., & Meister, C. (1994, Winter). Reciprocal teaching: A review of theresearch. Review of Educational Research, 64(4), 479-530.

Stahl, K. A. (2004, April). Proof, practice, and promise: Comprehension strategyinstruction in the primary grades. The Reading Teacher, 57(7), 598.Van Den Broek, P., & Kremer, K. E. (1999). Chapter 1: The mind in action: what itmeans to comprehend during reading. In Reading for Meaning: FosteringComprehension in the Middle Grades. Teachers College Press.

Wilhelm, J. D. (2002). Show me, help me, let me. In Action Strategies for DeepeningComprehension: Role Plays, Text Structure Tableaux, Talking Statues, andOther Enrichment Techniques That Engage Students with Text (pp. 19-30)Teaching Resources.

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