The basic liquid was purified with simple distillation and the boiling point of ICC was concluded. Through the analysis of IR spectrum of each unknown the structures for each unknowns were devised. An important peak for the solid unknown D was 1655. 71 CM-l (Ketene) and the peaks that were important for liquid unknown D were 1641. 69 CM-l (Amide), 1126. 43 CM-l (C-N bond), and 1384. 20 CM-l (C-N bond). Using the functional groups and the melting and boiling point of each unknown a list of possible identities was generated. The identity of unknown liquid D was 2,6 admittedly pyridine, and the identity of unknown solid D was phenomenon.
Introduction Chemically active extraction can be used to separate compounds of similar polarities by changing the polarity of one of the compounds in a mixture in order to extract and identify them. The polarities of molecules play an important role and are related to the solubility. Addition of an acid to a mixture will prorate the base to a salt and alternately if a base is added the acid will deportation to give a salt product. When extraction is performed in a separators funnel two noticeable areas form and the polar charged aqueous layer can be drained to leave the monopole neutral organic layer in a separators funnel.
Salts formed with the addition of acid or case are soluble in water and can be found in the aqueous layer. From this step the organic solution can be dried, solvent dissolved, and unknown solid recovered. The extraction scheme for this lab is below: Unknown Solid and Liquid dissolved in Ethyl Ether Extract xx 35 ml MM HCI Aqueous layer Organic Ether layer 100 ml MM Noah Dry Mages Extract xx 30 ml Ether Evaporate ether Dry Mages Recitalist Vacuum filter and simple distillation Adding the acidic HCI to a basic solvent would propionate it to a salt and it would be able to be separated to the aqueous layer.
The Noah then deportations the base so the solvent can be purified and the mixture is successfully separated. When the compounds are separated and the solid recovered rationalizations must occur to purify the solid further. Purification via this method is possible because of the different solubility of compounds, which is also dependent on temperature. Hot solvent dissolves crystals and as it cools crystals reform leaving the impurities not included in the final structure. Lastly, solvent can be evaporated to leave the pure crystals.
Drying, vacuum filtration, and simple distillation can further purify aqueous solvent. Reagent Table See other document Experimental 75 ml unknown ether solution was transferred to a separators funnel and extracted with 35 ml of MM HCI. The top layer containing the ether was washed with MM HCI two more times. The ether solution contained in the organic layer and was labeled Org while the HCI containing aqueous layer was combined and labeled AQUA. The AQUA was cooled on an ice bath and 100 ml MM Noah added then transferred back into a separators funnel.
The solution was washed with ml ether and the aqueous layer was poured back into the funnel and combined with another ml of ether. The aqueous layers were disposed of and the two ether portions combined and labeled Org. Both Org and Org were dried with Mages and Org was then placed over a steam bath to evaporate all excess ether. Org solid and 200 ml methanol were heated over a steam bath. Solvent was slowly added to the solid until completely dissolved and then was transferred to a windowsill until it reached room temperature again then cooled on an ice bath to recitalist.
Vacuum filtration was used to collect unknown crystals from Org. A Mel-temp apparatus was then used to determine the melting point range of the unknown. 40 ml of the liquid unknown (Org) was then put in a round bottom flask to be distilled with simple distillation and determine the unknown boiling point by monitoring the temperature as the solvent was distilled. Lastly infrared spectrum of both purified unknowns were obtained Results Unknown mixture D was a clear liquid that when treated with HCI and Noah created an oil layer which contained the liquid unknown.
The solid component of he unknown turned pink with the addition of methanol and became clear again. Using the Mel-temp apparatus the melting point range of the unknown solid was determined to be 47. 5-48. ICC. Final products were a clear liquid and white crystals. Table 1: IR Spectroscopy of Unknown Liquid D Absorption Frequency CM-l Literature Reference CM-l (Houston, 2014) 3434. 32 -3300 2872. 16, 2955. 27 2800-3000 1641. 69 1630-1690 1126. 43, 1384. 20 1020-1340 Table 2: IR Spectroscopy of Unknown Solid D 3288. 84 3087. 35, 3055. 14 -3030 1655. 71 1680-1750 Table 3: Boiling point Temperature (co)
Volume Collected (ml) 124 128 1. 5 130 2 132 2. 5 132. 5 3 133 3. 5 134 4 135 4. 5 5 5. 5 Calculations: Wet/crude crystals (g)- Empty 125 ml beaker Weight of crude crystals (g) 93. 19-85. 96=7. 23 Watch glass and crystals (g)- Watch glass (g)= Weight of pure crystals (g) 35. 69-34. 25=1 . 44 Discussion The purpose of the experiment was to use chemically active extraction to separate an unknown liquid and solid from a mixture dissolved in ethyl ether. Then to purify the separated compounds and identify them based on their physical properties, IR spectrum, and HONOR and CNR data.
The first step in the chemically active extraction was to use I-IAC to wash the mixture. This provided two layers that were labeled as organic 1 and aqueous 1. When the aqueous layer 1 was treated with Noah it created a thick oily layer. Due to the formation of the oil layer it was deduced that the compound being isolating was basic. The HCI propionate the base in order for it to be separate from the mixture and the Noah depredation it back to its original properties so it could be purified. The following steps were to remove the Noah with ether then the ether tit filtration and to distill it until pure.
During distillation the boiling point was found when the temperature leveled off at ICC. The other layer was already isolated and required drying and rationalizations. It was determined that the solid was neutral because the liquid unknown had been basic. From the purified compounds the IR spectra was obtained. Examining the spectra of each compound, boiling points, melting points, and using the CRY handbook a short list of possible structures was acquired. For the liquid compound possible structure were 4-indeterminately, 2,6 admittedly pyridine, ND methamphetamine.
For the solid compound possible structures were phenomenon, 2-inappropriateness, and 2,4,6-hypertension. These structures were determined because of the basic characteristics and the experimental boiling point. Observing the NOR and examining the important peaks on the spectra narrowed the short list of possible compounds down to one structure each. The unknown liquid was determined to be 2,6 admittedly pyridine. The 2,6 admittedly pyridine can be confirmed by the peaks on the spectra at 1126. 43 CM-l, 1384. 20 CM-l, 1641. 69 CM-l , 2872. 16 CM-l, 2955. 7 CM-l, and 3434. 2 CM-l . The 1641. 69 CM-l shows that the structure is an amide and basic and the peak at 1384. 20 CM-l also represents the C-N bond present from the amide. The two peaks in the two thousands correspond with the two C- H SSP bonds and in the 2 and 6 position. Lastly, 3434. 32 CM-l shows the C- H SP bonds. The HONOR data has three signals that correspond to the three different hydrogen groups around the ring of the molecule. The first signal at . 89 represents the primary alkyl groups; the second at 1. 7 shows allelic CHI bonds, and the last signal at 2. Are benignly bonds.
There are no signals for amines as was expected because the Nitrogen is bonded to Carbon atoms with no hydrogen bonds. The C’MON data also had three signals at 58. 83, 29. 05, and 21. 02. The amine CHI-N bond is represented at 58. 83 the other two signals represents primary and secondary alkyl bonds. The unknown solid was determined to be phenomenon. The structure was determined by the peaks at 3288. 84 CM-l, 3087. 35 CM-l, 3055. 14 CM-l , and 1655. 71 CM-l. The most important peak was 1655. 71 CM-l because it showed that the compound contained a ketene.
The other three peaks indicate that the molecule has C-H SP bonds and is aromatic. These peaks ruled the other possible structures out. The HONOR data had 2 signals that represented the two aromatic rings that were bonded to either side of the ketene. On the C’MON data the signal at 196. 57 indicates the presence of a ketene and the others represent alkyl. Error in this lab could have arisen from many sources. Unwashed glassware could have added impurities to the mixture during the experiment. This would have disrupted the purity of our compounds and affected the boiling point and letting point that was observed.